Brahma Samhita



The origins of the text known as Brahma-samhita are lost in cosmic antiquity.

According to Vedic tradition, these “Hymns of Brahma” were recited or sung

countless millennia ago by the first created being in the universe, just prior

to the act of creation. The text surfaced and entered calculable history early

in the sixteenth century when it was discovered by a pilgrim exploring the

manuscript library of an ancient temple in what is now Kerala state in South

India. Prior to the introduction of the printing press, texts like

Brahma-samhita existed only in manuscript form, painstakingly handwritten by

scribes and kept under brahminical custodianship in temples, where often they

were worshiped as sastra-Deity, or God incarnate in holy scripture.


The pilgrim who rescued Brahma-samhita from obscurity was no ordinary pilgrim,

and His pilgrimage was not meant, as is the custom, for self-purification but

for world-purification. He was Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu–saint, mystic,

religious reformer, and full incarnation of the Supreme Lord, Sri Krsna,

descending into the present epoch for the salvation of all souls. At the time

of His discovery of the text, Sri Caitanya was touring South India, preaching

His message of love of Krsna and promulgating the practice of sankirtana,

congregational singing of the holy names of God . Sri Caitanya commenced this

tour shortly after becoming a monk (sannyasi), at age twenty four, and the tour

lasted approximately two years. After a southward journey from Puri (in Orissa

State) that carried Him to holy places such as Sri Ranga-ksetra, Setubandha

Ramesvara, and finally Kanyakumari (Cape Comorin), he turned northward and,

traveling along the bank of the Payasvini River in Travancore state, reaches

the temple of Adi-kesava, in Trivandrum district.


Sri Caitanya’s principal biographer, Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami, writes in

Caitanya-caritamrta (Madhya-lila, Ch. 9) that upon beholding the holy image of

Adi-kesava (Krsna) in the temple, Caitanya was overwhelmed with spiritual

ecstasy, offered fervent prayers, and chanted and danced in rapture, a wondrous

sight that was received with astonished appreciation by the devotees there.

After discussing esoteric spiritual matters among some highly advanced devotees

present, Sri Caitanya found “one chapter of the Brahma-samhita” (what we now

have as Brahma-samhita is, according to tradition, only one of a hundred

chapters composing an epic work lost to humanity). Upon discovering the

manuscript, Sri Caitanya felt great ecstasy and fell into an intense mystic

rapture that overflowed onto the physical realm, producing a profusion of

tears, trembling and perspiration. (We would search the literature of the world

in vain to find a case in which the discovery of a lost book inspired such

unearthly exhilaration!) Intuiting the Brahma-samhita to be a “most valuable

jewel,” He employed a scribe in hand-copying the manuscript and departed with

the copy for His return journey to the north.


Upon His return to Puri (Madhya-lila, Ch. 11), Sri Caitanya presented

Brahma-samhita to appreciative followers like Ramananda Raya and Vasudeva

Datta, for whom Caitanya arranged copies to be made. As word of the discovery

of the text spread within the Vaisnava community, “each and every Vaisnava”

copied it. Gradually, Brahma-samhita was “broadcast everywhere” and became one

of the major texts of the Gaudiya-Vaisnava canon. “There is no scripture equal

to the Brahma-samhita as far as the final spiritual conclusion is concerned,”

exults Krsnadasa Kaviraja. “Indeed, that scripture is the supreme revelation of

the glories of Lord Govinda, for it reveals the topmost knowledge about Him.

Since all conclusions are briefly presented in Brahma-samhita, it is essential

among all the Vaisnava literatures.” (Madhya-lila 9.239-240)


Now, what of the text itself? What are its contents? A synopsis of the

Brahma-samhiti is provided by Srila Prabhupada, founder-acarya of the Krsna

consciousness movement, in his commentary to the Caytanya-caritamrta. It is

quoted here in full:


In [Brahma-samhita], the philosophical conclusion of acintya-bhedabheda-tattva

(simultaneous oneness and difference) is presented. [It] also presents methods

of devotional service, the eighteen-syllable Vedic hymn, discourses on the

soul, the Supersoul and fruitive activity, an explanation of kama-gayatri,

kama-bija and the original Maha-Visnu, and a specific description of the

spiritual world, specifically Goloka Vrndavana. Brahma-samhita also explains

the demigod Ganesa, the Garbhodakasayi Visnu, the origin of the Gayatri mantra,

the form of Govinda and His transcendental position and abode, the living

entities, the highest goal, the goddess Durga, the meaning of austerity, the

five gross elements, love at Godhead, impersonal Brahman, the initiation of

Lord Brahma, and the vision of transcendental love enabling one to see the

Lord. The steps of devotional service are also explained. The mind, yoga-nidra,

the goddess of fortune, devotional service in spontaneous ecstasy, incarnations

beginning with Lord Ramacandra. Deities, the conditioned soul and its duties,

the truth about Lord Visnu, prayers, Vedic hymns, Lord Siva, Vedic literature.

personalism and impersonalism, good behavior and many other subjects are also

discussed. There is also a description of the sun and the universal forms of

the Lord. All these subjects are conclusively explained in a nutshell in this

Brahma-samhita. (Madhya-lila, Vol. 4, p. 37)


In spite of the seeming topical complexity of the text, the essential core of

the Brahma-samhita consists of a brief description of the enlightenment of Lord

Brahma by Lord Sri Krsna, followed by Brahma’s extraordinarily beautiful

prayers elucidating the content of his revelation: an earthly,beatific vision

of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna, and His eternal,

transcendental abode, Goloka Vrndavana, beyond the material cosmos. This core

of the text stretches through verse twenty-nine to fifty-six, and a brief,

subsequent exposition by Lord Krsna on the path of krsna-bhakti, love of God,

brings the text to a close.


The Brahma-samhita’s account of Brahma’s enlightenment is quite interesting and

can be summarized here. When Lord Vishnu (Garbhodakasayi Vishnu) desires to

recreate the universe, a divine golden lotus flower grows from His navel, and

Brahma is born from this lotus. As he is not born from parents, Brahma is known

as “Svayambhu” (“self-existent” or “unoriginated”). Upon his emergence from the

lotus, Brahms begins– in preparation for his role as secondary creator–to

contemplate the act of cosmic creation but, seeing only darkness about, is

bewildered in the performance of his duty. Sarasvati, the goddess of learning,

appears before him and instructs him to meditate upon the kama-bija mantru

(Klim krsnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha), promising that this mantra

“will assuredly fulfill your heart’s desire.” Lord Brahms thus meditates upon

Lord Krsna in His spiritual realm and hears the divine sound of Krsna`s flute.

The kama-gayatri mantra (Klim kamadevaya vidmahe puspa-banaya dhimahi tan no

nangah pracodayat), the “mother of the Vedas,” is made manifest from the sound

of Krsna’s flute, and Brahma, thus initiated by the supreme primal preceptor

Himself, begins to chant the Gayatri. (As Srila Prabhupada puts it, “When the

sound vibration of Krsna’s flute is expressed through the mouth of Brahma, it

becomes gayatri” [teachings of Lord Caytanya, p. 322]). Enlightened by

meditation upon the sacred Gayatri, Brahma “became acquainted with the expanse

of the ocean of truth.” Inspired by his profound and sublime realizations, his

heart overflowing with devotion and transcendental insight, Lord Brahma

spontaneously begins to offer a series of poem-prayers to the source of his

enlightenment and the object of his devotion, Lord Sri Krsna. These exquisite

verses form the heart of the Brahma-samhita.


There is nothing vague about Brahms’s description of the Lord and His abode. No

dim, nihilistic nothingness, no blinding bright lights, no wispy, dreamy

visions of harps and clouds; rather, a vibrant, luminescent world in

transcendental color, form, and sound–a sublimely variegated spiritual

landscape populated by innumerable blissful, eternally liberated souls reveling

in spiritual cognition, sensation, and emotion, all in relationship with the

all-blissful, all-attractive Personality of Godhead. Here is a sample:


I worship Govinda [Krsna, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor who is

tending the cows, yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems.

surrounded by millions or purpose trees, always served with great reverence and

affection by hundreds of thousands of Laksmis or gopis. I worship Govinda, the

primeval Lord, who is adept in playing on His flute, with blooming eyes like

lotus petals, with head decked with peacock’s feather, with the figure of

beauty tinged with the hue of blue clouds, and His unique loveliness charming

millions of Cupid.


… I worship [Goloka Vrndavana] … where every tree is a transcendental

purpose tree; where the soil is the purpose gem, all water is nectar, every

word is a song, every gait is a dance, the flute is the favorite atten-

dant…. where numberless milk cows always emit transcendental oceans of milk.


The commentator reminds us (p. 104) that in the transcendental region of Goloka

are found the same elements as are found in the mundane worlds, but in their

highest purity and beauty: “… trees and creepers, mountains, rivers and

forests, water, speech, movement, music of the flute, the sun and the moon,

tasted and taste …” Krsna’s divine abode, Goloka Vrndavana, is a world in the

fullest and realist sense.


There are those who will have difficulty with Brahma’s highly graphic and

personalistic depiction of the spiritual world and of the liberated state.

Some, for instance, whose conception of transcendence is determined by a

certain logical fallacy based on the arbitrary assumption that spirit is the

literal opposite of matter (and thus that because matter has form and variety

spirit must necessarily be formless and unvariegated), conceive of ultimate

reality as some sort of divine emptiness. However, any conception of

transcendence that projects or analogizes from our limited sensory and

cognitive experience within the material world is, by its very nature, limited

and speculative and thus unreliable. No accumulated quantity of sense data

within this world can bring us to knowledge of what lies beyond it. Residents

of the material world cannot get even a clue of transcendence, argues our

Brahma-samhita commentator, “by moving heaven and earth through their organic

senses” (p. xix).


The Brahma-samhita teaches what transcendence, truth, ultimate reality can be

apprehended only by the mercy of the supreme transcendent entity the Absolute

Truth Himself, and that perception of ultimate reality is a function not of

speculative reason but of direct spiritual cognition through divine revelation.

This revelation is evolved through bhakti, pure, selfless love of God. Only by

such spiritual devotion can Krsna be seen: “I worship Govinda, the primeval

Lord … whom the pure devotees see in their heart of hearts with the eye of

devotion tinged with the salve of love” (verse 38). Further, as our commentator

explains, “the form of Krsna is visible (to the eye of the pure spiritual self]

in proportion to its purification by the practice of devotion” (p. 75). Bhakti

as a state of consciousness, then, is attained through bhakti as a practice, a

discipline. For this reason, Lord Krsna in His response to Brahma at the end of

the text, summarizes the path or bhakti in five aphorisms. This devotional

discipline goes far beyond conventional piety. It necessitates “constant

endeavor for self-realization” (verse 59) involving both a turning from

worldly, sense-gratificatory activities as well as sincere absorption in

spiritual practices and behavior, under the guidance of authorized scripture.

Through such practice, then, the materialist is purified of his tendency toward

philosophical negation and comes to understand the nature of positive



Others will find Lord Brahma’s vision of the spiritual realm problematic for a

related, but perhaps more subjective, emotional reason that goes to the heart

of the human condition. There is a kind of ontological anxiety, a conscious or

subconscious apprehension about beingness or existence itself, that goes along

with embodied life-in-the-world–that accompanies the soul’s descent into the

temporal, endlessly changing world of matter. Material bodies and minds are

subjected to a huge variety of objective and subjective discomfitures,

unpleasantries, and abject sufferings within the material world. Viewed

philosophically, embodied person hood, false-self (ahnkara), is, to a greater

or lesser degree, innately a condition of suffering. Because personal existence

has been experienced by materialists as essentially painful, writes Prabhupada

in his Bhagavad-gita commentary, “the conception of retaining the personality

after liberation from matter frightens them. When they are informed that

spiritual life is also individual and personal, they become afraid of becoming

persons again, and so they naturally prefer a kind of merging into the

impersonal void” (4.10, purport). Entering the path of bhakti, however, such

persons can gradually begin to experience their real, spiritual selves and a

release from egoistic anxiety. In that purified state, they become able to

relish Brahma’s vision of blissful, personal spiritual existence in Goloka.


Still others. however, might criticize Brahma-samhita on the grounds that the

text, being quite specific and concrete in its depiction, merely offers another

limited, sectarian view of God and His abode–a view in conflict with other,

similarly limited views. Such persons prefer a kind of genericized Deity who

doesn’t offend variant theological views with definable, personal attributes.

Brahma-samhita, however, is not a polemic against “competing” conceptions of

the Deity (except those, of courses, which would deny His transcendental person

hood). Vaisnava tradition does not dismiss images of the Divine derived from

authoritative scripture from beyond its own cultural and conceptual borders. It

respects any sincere effort at serving the Supreme Person, although naturally

it holds its own texts as most comprehensive and authoritative. It promotes

neither an arrogant sectarianism that would constrain transcendence to

exclusive cultural, ideational, or linguistic forms (and burn a few heretics),

nor a syncretistic ecumenism that would try to pacify all claimants on the

truth by departicularizing it into bland vagary. Let the syncretists and the

sectarians come together to appreciate, at least, the aesthetic magnificence of

Brahma’s theistic epiphany.


What we are experiencing through Lord Brahma in his samhita is not mystic

hallucination nor quaint mythologizing nor an exercise in pious wishful

thinking. We are getting a glimpse, however dimmed by our own insensitivities,

into the spiritual world as seen by one whose eyes are “tinged with the salve

of love.” We are seeing, through Brahma, an eternal, transcendental world of

which the present world is a mere reflection. Goloka is infinitely more real

than the shadowy world we perceive daily through our narrow senses. Brahma’s

vision of the spiritual realm is not his alone. It is shared by all those who

give themselves fully unto the loving service of Lord Krsna– though Brahma

admits that Goloka is known “only to a very few self-realized souls in this

world” (verse 56). We are not asked to accept Brahma’s account of transcendence

uncritically and dogmatically but to avail ourselves of the spiritual disci-

pline, bhakti-yoga, that will gradually lead us to our own experiential

understanding of this highest truth. The publishers of this small volume hope

that a careful perusal of the text will inspire bhakti in the heart of the

reader. It should be noted that Brahma-samhita is an advanced spiritual text

and is more easily understood once one already has some familiarity with texts

such as Bhagavad-gita, Srimad-Bhagavatam, Caitanya-cariramrta, and



This volume is a new and expanded edition of an English language Brahma-samhita

edition published in India in 1932 by the Gaudiya Math (a Caitanya-Vaisnava

religious institution), with subsequent reprints in 1958 and 1973. These

editions featured the English translation and commentary of Srila

Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami (1874-1937), a great Vaisnava saint and

scholar of wide repute and the founder of the Gaudiya Math. It was

Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati who inspired the founder and spiritual master of the

Hare Krsna movement, his dearmost disciple Srila A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami

Prabhupada, to journey to and teach Krsna consciousness in the West, beginning

in 1965.


As per Srila Prabhupada’s instructions regarding the publication of this

volume, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati’s somewhat technical and sometimes difficult

prose has been left intact and virtually untouched. Fearing that any editorial

(grammatical and stylistic) tampering with Bhaktisiddhanta’s text might result

in inadvertent changes in meaning, Prahhupada asked that it be left as is, and

the editors of this volume have complied with his wishes. Only typographical

errors have been corrected, capitalization has been standardized, Sanskrit

terms in devanagari script appearing within the English text have been

transliterated, and already transliterated terms have been adjusted to

international standards.


In this edition, the original devanagari text is shown for each verse of the

Brahma-samhita-, followed by roman transliteration, then by a word-for-word

translation into English. (The original Indian edition lacked the latter two

features.) These, in turn, are followed by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati’s full

English translation and commentary. His commentary closely follows that of his

father, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura ( 1838-1914), the great Vaisnava saint,

reformer, and prolific scholar who initiated a revival of pure

Caitanya-Vaisnavism during the latter part of the nineteenth century.


Finally an index and glossary have been added for the convenience of the

reader, as well as several color plates.


The Indian edition of Brahma-samhita included the complete text, in Sanskrit,

of the commentary of Jiva Gosvami, the great Caitanyite philosopher, but that

has been excluded from this edition because, in light of the relative few in

the West who would benefit from its inclusion, it was decided that the neces-

sary doubling of the volume’s size and price would be disadvantageous.


In his commentary to the twenty-eighth verse of the text, Bhaktisiddhanta

Sarasvati writes that Lord Caitanya “taught this hymn to His favorite disciples

in as much as it fully contains all the transcendental truths regarding

Vaisnava philosophy,” and he asks his readers to “study and try to enter into

the spirit of his hymn with great care and attention, as a regular daily

function.” His disciple Srila Prabhupada was very fond of Brahma’s prayers to

Lord Krsna (… govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami), and there are several

recordings of Prabhupada singing these prayers with obvious, intense devotion.

The publishers join with the commentator in inviting readers to dive deeply

into the sweet, transcendental ocean of Brahma’s hymns as a daily meditation.


–Subhananda Dasa






The materialistic demeanor cannot possibly stretch to the transcendental

autocrat who is ever inviting the fallen conditioned souls to associate with

Him through devotion or eternal serving mood. The phenomenal attractions are

often found to tempt sentient beings to enjoy the variegated position which is

opposed to undifferenced monism. People are so much apt to indulge in

transitory speculations even when they are to educate themselves on a situation

beyond their empiric area or experiencing jurisdiction. The esoteric aspect

often knocks them to trace out immanence in their outward inspection of

transitory and transformable things. This impulse moves them to fix the

position of the immanent to an indeterminate impersonal entity, no clue of

which could be discerned by moving earth and heaven through their organic



The lines of this booklet will surely help such puzzled souls in their march

towards the personality of the immanent lying beyond their sensuous gaze of

inspection. The very first stanza of this publication will revolutionize their

reserved ideas when the nomenclature of the Absolute is put before them as

“Krsna.” The speculative mind would show a tendency of offering some other

attributive name to designate the unknown object. They will prefer to brand Him

by their experience as the “creator of this universe,” “the entity beyond

phenomena”–far off the reference of any object of nature and void of all

transformation. So they will urge that the very fountainhead should have no

conceivable designation except to show a direction of the invisible, and

inaudible untouchable, non fragrant and unperceivable object. But they will now

desist from contemplating on the object with their poor fund of experience. The

interested enquire will be found to hanker after the records left by erudite

savants to incompatible hallucinative views of savage demonstration. In

comparing the different names offered by different thoughts of mankind, a

particular judge would decide in favor of some nomenclature which will suit

best his limited and specific whims. The slave mentality of an individual will

no doubt offer invective assertions to the rest who will be appealing to him

for a revelation of his decision. To remedy this evil, the hymns of the

accepted progenitor of the phenomena would do great help in taking up the

question of nomenclature which is possessed of adequate power to dispel all

imaginations drawn out of their experiencing the phenomena by their tentative



The first hymn will establish the supremacy of the Absolute Truth, if His

substratum is not shot by the bullets of limited time, ignorance and

uncomfortable feeling, as well as by recognizing the same as an effect instead

of accepting Him as the prime cause. He will be satisfied to mark that the

object of their determination is the par-excellent Supreme Lord, Sri Krsna who

has eternally embodied Himself in His ever-presence, all blissful,

all-pervasive perfected knowledge as the very fountainhead of all prime causes

of unending non beginning time, the supplying fostered of all entities, viz.,

mundane and transcendental.


The subsequent lines will go to determine the different aspects of the

Absolute, who are but emanations of the supreme fountainhead Krsna, the

attractive entity of all entities. Moreover, the derivative proclamation of the

nomenclature will indicate the plane of uninterrupted, unending, transcendental

felicity and the nomenclature Himself is the source of the two components which

go by the names of efficient and material causes. The very transcendental name

“Krsna” is known as the embody iment of all the transcendental eternal rasps as

well as the origin of all eclipsed conceptions of interrupted rasps found in

the mentality of animated beings which are successfully depicted by

litterateurs and rhetoricians for our mundane speculation.


The verses of Brahma-samhita are a full elucidation of the origination of

phenomenal and noumenic conceptions. The hymns of the incarnated prime potency

has dealt fully with the henotheistic speculations of different schools which

are busy to give an outer cover of an esoteric concoction without any reference

to the true eternal aspect of transcendental non transformable and imperishably

manifestation of the immanent. The hymns have also dealt with different partial

aspects of the personality of the Absolute who is quite isolated from the

conception of the enjoyers of this phenomenal world.


A very close attention and a comparative study of all prevailing thoughts and

conceptions will relieve and enlighten all–be he a materialist, a downright

atheist, an agnostic, a skeptic, a naturalist, a pantheist or a

panantheist–busy with their knowledge of three dimensions only by their

speculative exertions.


This booklet is only the fifth chapter of the Hymns of Brahma which were

recorded in a hundred chapters. The Supreme Lord Sri Caitanya picked up this

chapter from the temple of Adi-kesava at Tiruvattar, a village lying under the

government of Travancore, for the assurance of all God-loving, and especially

Krsna-loving, people in this conditioned jurisdiction. This booklet can easily

be compared with another book which passes by the name of Srimad-Bhagavatam.

Though it has got a reference in the pantheon of Puranas, the Bhagavatam

corroborates the same idea of this Pancaratra.


The devotees should consider that these two books tend to the identical Krsna

who is the fountainhead of all transcendental and mundane entities and has a

manifestive exhibition of the plenary variegatedness.


Aspersions of calumniation are restricted in the limited world, whereas

transcendence cannot admit such angularities being an angle of 180 degrees or

void of any angular discrepancies.


The publisher is carried away to the realm of gratitude when his stores of

publication are scrutinized. Thakura Bhaktivinoda has given an elucidator

purport of the conception of the most sublime fountainhead of all entities in

Bengali, and one of his devout followers has rendered that into English for

propagator purpose. The purports and the translations are traced to the

backgrounds of the writings of Srila Jiva Gosvami, a contemporary follower of

the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya. The emotional aspirations will find fair

play in perusing the texts of this brochure by one and all who have any

interest in pure theistic achievements. The materialistic inspection often goes

on to say that the provincial conception of theism has made the depicting of

transcendental unity into diverse face quite opposed to the ethical

consideration of the limited region. But we differ from such erroneous

considerations when we get a prospective view of the manifested

transcendentality eliminating all historicities and allegorical enterprises.

All our enjoying mood should have a different direction when we take into

account the transcendental entity who has obsessed all frailties and

limitations of nature. So we solicit the happier mood of the scrutinizers to

pay special attention to the importance of manifestive transcendence in Krsna.


It was found necessary to publish this small book for the use of Enghsh-knowing

people who are interested in the acme of transcendental truths in their

manifestive phases. The theme delineated in the texts of this book is quite

different from the ordinary heaps of poetical mundane literature, as they are

confined to our limited aspiration of senses. The book was found in the South

some four centuries ago and it is again brought into light in the very same

country after a long time, just like the worshiping of the Goddess Ganges by

the offering of her own water.




Shree Gaudiya Math,


Calcutta, the 1st August, 1932.






isvarah paramah krsnah




anadir adir govindah






isvarah–the controller; paramah–supreme; krsnah–Lord Krsna; sat–comprising

eternal existence; cit–absolute knowledge; ananda–and absolute bliss;

vigrahah–whose form, anadih–without beginning; adih–the origin;

govindah–Lord Govinda; sarva-karana-karanam–the cause of all causes.






Krsna who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal

blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He

is the prime cause of all causes.






Krsna is the exalted Supreme entity having His eternal name, eternal form,

eternal attribution and eternal pastimes. The very name “Krsna” implies His

love-attracting designation, expressing by His eternal nomenclature the acme of

entity. His eternal beautiful heavenly blue-tinged body glowing with the

intensity of ever-existing knowledge has a nude in both His hands. As His

inconceivable spiritual energy is all-extending, still He maintains His

all-charming medium size by His qualifying spiritual instrumentals. His

all-accommodating supreme subjectivity is nicely manifested in His eternal

form. The concentrated all time presence, uncovered knowledge and inebriating

felicity have their beauty in Him. The mundane manifestive portion of His own

Self is known as all-pervading Paramatma, Isvara (Superior Lord) or Vishnu

(All-fostering). Hence it is evident that Krsna is sole Supreme Godhead. His

unrivaled or unique spiritual body of super excellent charm is eternally

unveiled with innumerable spiritual instrumentals (senses) and unreckonable

attributes keeping their signifying location properly, adjusting at the same

time by His inconceivable conciliative powers. This beautiful spiritual figure

is identical with Krsna and the spiritual entity of Krsna is identical with His

own figure.


The very intensely blended entity of eternal presence of felicitous cognition

is the charming targeted holding or transcendental icon. It follows that the

conception of the indistinguishable formless magnitude (Brahman) which is an

indolent, lax, presentment of cognitive bliss is merely a penumbra of intensely

blended glow of the three concomitants, viz., the blissful, the substantive and

the cognitive. This transcendental manifestive icon Krsna in His original face

is primordial background of magnitudinal infinite Brahman and of the

all-pervasive oversoul. Krsna as truly visioned in His variegated pastimes,

such as owner of transcendental cows, chief of cowherds, consort of milk-maids,

ruler of the terrestrial abode Gokula and object of worship by transcendental

residents of Goloka beauties, is Govinda. He is the root cause of all causes

who are the predominating and predominated agents of the universe. The glance

of His projected fractional portion in the sacred originating water viz., the

personal oversoul or Paramatma, gives rise to a secondary potency–nature who

creates this mundane universe. This oversoul’s intermediate energy brings forth

the individual souls analogously to the emanated rays of the sun.


This book is a treatise of Krsna; so the preamble is enacted by chanting His

name in the beginning.








gokulakhyam mahat padam


tat-karnikaram tad-dhama






sahasra-patra–possessing a thousand petals; kamalam–a lotus;

gokula-akhyam–known as Gokula; mahat padam–the super excellent station;

tat–of that (lotus); karnikaram–the whorl; tat–of Him (Krsna); dhama–the

abode, tat–that (Gokula); ananta–of His infinitary aspect, Balarama; amsa–

from a part; sambhavam–produced.






[The spiritual place of transcendental pastimes of Krsna is portrayed in the

second verse.] The superexcellent station of Krsna, which is known as Gokula,

has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part

of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of







Gokula, like Goloka, is not a created mundane plane– unbounded character forms

the display of His unlimited potency and His propagating manifestation.

Baladeva is the mainstay of that energy. The transcendental entity of Baladeva

has two aspects viz., infinite spiritual manifestation and infinite

accommodating space for insentient gross things. The uniquadrantal delineation

of material universe will be dealt with in the proper place. The triquadrantal

extensions of the transcendental infinitary field of the almighty, unlamenting,

nonperishing and nonapprehending unlimited situations of halo which are fully

spiritual majestic foliation. This very majestical extension portrays the

manifested lofty rich feature of the vaster unlimited region or greater

atmosphere which has its resplendent location wholly beyond the realm of

mundane nature, on the further shore of Viraja surrounded by the halo of

Brahman or indistinguishable entity. This majestical power of unlimited spirit

emanates on the upper portion of the luminous sphere into the most charming

Gokula or eternally existing Goloka, exceedingly beautified by the assorted

display of effulgence. Some designate this region as the abode of the Supreme

Narayana, or the original fountainhead. Hence Gokula, which is identical with

Goloka, is the supreme plane. The same sphere shines as Goloka and Gokula

respectively by its upper or transcendental and lower or mundane situation.


Sri Sanatana Gosvami has told us as follows in his Brhad-bhagavatamrta which

embodies the final essence of all the books of instructions: “He displays His

pastimes here in this land as He is used to do in Goloka. The difference

between the two planes lies only in their locations as high and low; that is,

in other words, Krsna plays exactly the same part in Goloka as He exhibits on

the mundane plane of Gokula. There is practically no difference between Gokula

and Goloka save that this what exists in the shape of Goloka in the upper

region is the same as Gokula on the mundane plane when Krsna showed His various

activity there. Sri Jiva Gosvami has also inculcated the same in the

Bhagavat-sandarbha of his ‘Six Treatises.’ To ascertain the plane of

Goloka–Vrndavana is the eternal abode of Krsna and Goloka and Vrndavana are

identically one, and though both are identical, yet Krsna’s inconceivable

energy has made Goloka the acme of this spiritual kingdom and Gokula of Mathura

province forming a part of the mundane plane which is also a manifestation of

triquadrantal vibhuti (conducting majesty). Poor human understanding cannot

possibly make out how the extensive triquadrantal, which is beyond human

comprehension, can be accommodated in the limited nether material universe of a

uniquadrantal disclosure. Gokula is a spiritual plane, hence his condescended

position in the region of material space, time, etc., is in no way restricted

but unlimitedly manifested with his full boundless propriety. But conditioned

souls are apt to assert a material conception in regard to Gokula by their

miserable senses so as to bring him below the level of their intellect. Though

the eye of an observer is impeded by a cloud when gazing at the sun and though

the tiny cloud can never really cover the sun, still the clouded vision

apparently observes the sun as covered by the cloud. In just the same way the

conditioned souls with their obscured intelligence, senses and decisions,

accept Gokula as a piece of measurable land. We can see Gokula from Goloka

which is eternal. This is also a mystery. The attainment of final beatitude is

the success in attaining one’s eternal self. The success in identifying the

true self is finally achieved when the screen of gross and subtle coils of

conditioned souls is removed by the sweet will of Krsna. However, the idea of

Goloka is seen to differ from Gokula till the success in unalloyed devotion is

achieved. The transcendental plane of infinite spiritual manifestation having

thousands of petals and corolla like those of the lotus, is Gokula, the eternal

abode of Krsna.






karnikaram mahad yantram


sat-konam vajra-kilakam




prakrtya purusena ca






rasenavasthitam hi yat


jyoti-rupena manuma


kama-bijena sangatam




karnikaram–the whorl; mahat–great; yantram–figure; sat-konam–a hexagon;

vajra–like a diamond; kilakam–the central support; sat-anga-sat-padi–of the

eighteen-syllable mantra with sixfold divisions; sthanam–the place of

manifestation; prakrtya–along with the predominated aspect of the Absolute:

purusena–along with the predominating aspect of the Absolute; ca–also;

prema-ananda–of the bliss of love of God; maha-ananda–of the great

transcendental jubilations; rasena–with the rasa (mellow);

avasthitam–situated; hi–certainly; yat–which; jyotih-rupena–transcendental;

manuna–with the mantra; kama-bijena–with the kama-bija (klim);







The whorl of that transcendental lotus is the realm wherein dwells Krsna. It is

a hexagonal figure. the abode of the indwelling predominated and predominating

aspect of the Absolute. Like a diamond the central supporting figure of

self-luminous Krsna stands as the transcendental source of all potencies. The

holy name consisting of eighteen transcendental letters is manifested in a

hexagonal figure with sixfold divisions.






The transcendental pastimes of Krsna are twofold, viz. manifested and non-

manifested. The pastimes in Vrndavana visible to mortal eyes are the

manifestive Lila of Sri Krsna, and what which is not so visible, is

nonmanifestive Lila of Krsna. The nonmanifestive Lila is always visible in

Goloka and the same is visible to human eyes in Gokula, if Krsna so desires. In

his Krsna-sandarbha Sri Jiva Gosvami Prabhu says, “Nonmanifestive pastimes are

expressed in manifestive krsna-lila, and goloka-lila is the nonmanifestive

pastimes of Krsna visualized from the mundane plane.” This is also corroborated

by Sri Rupa in his Bhagavatamrta. The progressive transcendental manifestation

of Gokula is Goloka. So Goloka is the self same majestic manifestation of

Gokula. The eternal pastimes of Sri Krsna, although not visible in Gokula, are

eternally manifested in Goloka. Goloka is the transcendental majestic

manifestation of Gokula. The manifestations of the nonmanifestive pastimes of

Krsna with regard to the conditioned souls, are twofold, viz., (1) worship

through the channel of the mantras (inaudibly recited, liberating,

self-dedicatory, transcendental sounds) (2) spontaneous outflow of heart’s

spiritual love for Krsna. Sri Jia Gosvmi has said that worship through the

mantra is possible permanently in the proper place, when confined to one

pastime. This meditative manifestation of Goloka is the pastime attended with

the worship of Krsna through the mantra. Again, the pastimes that are performed

in different planes and in different moods, are autocratic in diverse ways;

hence sva-rasiki, i.e., spontaneous, outflow of heart’s spiritual love for

Krsna. This sloka conveys a twofold meaning. One meaning is that in the pastime

attended with, worship through the mantra consisting of eighteen transcendental

letters, transcendental words contained in the said mantra being differently

placed make a manifestation of only one Lila of Sri Krsna. As for example Klim

krsnaya govindaya gopijana-vallabhaya svaha– this is a hexagonal mantra

consisting of six transcendental words, viz., (1) krsnaya, (2) govindaya, (3)

gopijana, (4) vallabhaya, (5) sva, (6) ha. These six transcendental words, when

placed juxtapositianally, indicate the mantra.


The hexagonal great transcendental machinery is in this wise. The principal

seed, i.e. klim, is situated in, the instrument as the central pivot. Anybody

with an impression of such an instrument in his mind and concentrating his

thought on such spiritual entities, can attain, like Candradhvaja, to the

knowledge of the cognitive principle. The word sva indicates ksetrajna i.e.,

one who is conversant with one’s inner self, and the word ha indicates the

transcendental nature. This meaning of the mantra has also been corroborated by

Sri Hari-bhakti-vilasa. The general meaning is this that one who is desirous of

entering into the esoteric pastimes of Krsna will have to practice His tran-

scendental service along with the culture of the devotional knowledge relative

to Him. (1) krsna-svarupa–the proper Self of Krsna; (2) krsnasya

cin-maya-vraja-lila-vilasa-svarupa–the true nature of Krsna’s transcendental

pastimes in Vraja; (3) tat-parikara-gopijana-svarupa–the true nature of His

spiritual associates in Vraja, viz., the spiritual milkmen and the milkmaids;

(4) tad-vallabha–the true nature of self-surrender to Krsna in the footsteps

of the spiritual milkmaids of Vraja; (5) suddha-jivasya

cid-(jnana)-svarupa–the true nature of the spiritual knowledge of the

unalloyed individual soul; (6) cit-prakrtir arthat krsna-seva-svabhava–the

true nature of transcendental service to Krsna is this that the esoteric

relation is established on the awakening of one’s pure cognition. The meaning

is that rasa is only the transcendental service of the central refuge Sri

Krsna, as predominating aspect of the Absolute, by one’s ego as the spiritual

maid of the predominated moiety of the absolute integer, attended with pure

devotion in the shape of one’s entire self-surrender. The pastime in Goloka or

in Gokula during the stage of devotional progress, is the meditative worship

through the mantra, and during the stage of perfection the pastimes manifest

themselves as the unrestrained transcendental jubilations. This is the real

aspect of Goloka or Gokula, which will be made more explicit in due course. The

meaning of the words jyoti-rupena manuna is that the transcendental meaning is

expressed in the mantra by means of which, on transcendental desire of love for

Krsna and the service of Krsna being added, one is established in the eternal

love of Krsna. Such eternal pastimes are eternally manifested in Goloka.






tat-kinjalkam tad-amsanam


tat-patrani sriyam api




tat–of that (lotus); kinjalkam–the petals; tat-amsanam–of His (Krsna’s)

fragmental portions; tat–of that (lotus); patrani–the leaves; sriyam–of the

gopis (headed by Srimati Radharani); api–also.






The whorl of that eternal realm Gokula is the hexagonal abode of Krsna. Its

petals are the abode of gopis who are part and parcel of Krsna to whom they are

most lovingly devoted and are similar in essence. The petals shine beautifully

like so many walls. The extended leaves of that lotus are the garden like

dhama, i.e. spiritual abode of Sri Radhika, the most beloved of Krsna.






The transcendental Gokula is shaped like the lotus. The eternal world is like a

hexagonal figure; in that the entities Sri Radha-Krsna, appearing in the form

of a mantra consisting of eighteen transcendental letters, are centered. The

propagating manifestations emanating from the cit potency are present there

with the said entities as the center. Sri Radha-Krsna is the primary cause or

the seed Himself. Gopala-tapani says, “Omkara” signifies the All-Powerful

Gopala and His potency; and “klim” is the same as omkara. Hence kama-bija or

the primary cause of all-love, is connotative of the entities Sri Radha-Krsna.






catur-asram tat-paritah


svetadvipakhyam adbhutam


oatur-asram catur-murtes


catur-dhama catus-krtam




caturbhih purusarthais ca


caturbhir hetubhir vrtam


sulair dasabhir anaddham


urdhvadho dig-vidiksv api




asabhir nidhibhir justam


astabhih siddhibhis tatha


manu-rupais ca dasabhir


dik-palaih parito vrtam




syamair gaurais ca raktais ca


suklais ca parsadarsabhaih


sobhitam saktibhis tabhir


adbhutabhih samantatah




catuh-asram–quadrangular place; tat–that (Gokula); paritah– surrounding;

sveta-dvipa–Svetadvipa (the white island); akhyam–named;

adbhutam–mysterious; catuh-asram– quadrangular; catuh-murteh–of the four

primary expansions (Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha); catuh-

dhama–consisting of four abodes; catuh-krtam–divided into four parts;

caturbhih–by the four; purusa-arthaih–human requirements; ca–and;

caturbhih–by the four; hetubhih– causes, or bases of achievement;

vrtam–enveloped; sulaih– with tridents; dasabhih–ten; anaddham–fixed;

urdhva-adhah–upwards and downwards (the zenith and nadir); dik–(in) the

directions (north, south, east, and west); vidiksu– and in the intermediate

directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest); api–also;

astabhih–with the eight; nidhibhih–jewels; justam–endowed; astabhih–with

the eight; siddhibhih–mystic perfections (anima, laghima, prapti, prakamya,

mahima, isitva, vasitva, and kamavasayita); tatha–also; manu-rupaih–in the

form of mantras; ca–and; dasabhih–by ten; dik-palaih–protectors of the

directions; paritah–all around; vrtam–surrounded; syamaih–blue;

gauraih–yellow; ca–and; raktaih–red; ca–and, suklaih– white; ca–also;

parsada-rsabhaih–with the topmost associates; sobhitam–shining;

saktibhih–with potencies; tabhih–those; adbhutahhih–extraordinary;

samantatah–on all sides.






[The surrounding external plane of Gokula is described in this verse.] There is

a mysterious quadrangular place named Svetadvipa surrounding the outskirts of

Gokula. Svetadvipa is divided into four parts on all sides. The abode of

Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are separately loalted in each of

these four parts. These four divided abodes are enveloped by the fourfold human

requirements such as piety, wealth, passion and liberation, as also by the four

Vedas, viz. Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva, which deal with the mantra and which

are the bases of achievements of the fourfold mundane requirements. Ten

tridents are fixed in the ten directions, including the zenith and nadir. The

eight directions are decorated with the eight jewels of Mahapadma, Padma,

Sankha, Makara, Kacchapa, Mukunda, Kunda, and Nila. There are ten protectors

[dik-palas] of the ten directions in the form of mantra. The associates of the

hues of blue, yellow, red and white and the extraordinary potencies bearing the

names of Vimala, etc., shine on all sides.






Primarily Gokula is the seat of transcendental love and devotion. Hence Yamuna,

Sri Govardhana, Sri Radha-kunda, etc., of the terrestrial Vraja-mandala lie

within Gokula. Again, all the majesties of Vaikuntha are manifested there

extending in all directions. The pastimes of the four propagating manifesta-

tions are all there in their proper places. The paravyoma Vaikuntha has got its

extension from the display of the four propagating manifestations. Salvation as

of Vaikuntha, and piety wealth and passion pertaining to worldly people, are in

the proper places in Gokula as their original seed, i.e., primary cause. The

Vedas also are engaged in singing the song of the Lord of Gokula. There are ten

tridents in ten directions to prevent and disappoint those who are aspirants

for having an entrance into Goloka through meditations without the grace of

Krsna. Self-conceived people who try to reach this region trough the paths of

yoga (meditation) and jnana (empiric knowledge) are baffled in their attempts,

being pierced by the ten tridents. Self-annihilation has its excellence in

Brahma-dhama which represents the outside covering of Goloka in the shape of

tridents. Sula means a trident: the mundane threefold attributes and the

threefold divisions of time represent the trident. Astanga-yogis i.e. ascetics

who practice the eightfold yoga, are the nondifferentiative liberationists who,

trying to approach in the direction of Goloka, fall headlong into the pits of

disappointment by being pierced and cut asunder by these tridents placed in ten

directions. Those who proceed towards the direction of Goloka through the

channel of devotion alloyed with majestic ideas, are fascinated with the charms

of Vaikuntha which is the outer covering plane of Sri Goloka, at the sight of

the eight perfections, viz., amina, etc., and majesties like mahapadma, etc.

Those who are less forward in their intelligence relapse to the sevenfold world

falling under the control of the ten protectors (of the ten directions) in the

guise of mantras. In this wise, Goloka has become unknowable and inaccessible.

It is only the divine selves of Godhead, the propounders of the divine

dispensations for the different ages, who are al ways forward there to favor

the approaching devotees who seek entry into the realm of Goloka through the

channel of pure devotional love. These divine forms of Godhead are surrounded

there with attendants of their respective natures. Svetadvipa in Goloka is

their place of abode. Hence Srila Thakura Vrndavana the manifest Vyasa of

caitanya-lila, has described the village of Navadvipa as bearing the name of

Svetadvipa. In this Svetadvipa the concluding portions of the pastimes of

Gokula exist eternally as the pastimes of Navadvipa. Hence the region of

Navadvipa, Vraja and the realm of Goloka are one and the same indivisible

entity; the difference only lies in the manifestations of the infinite variety

of sentiments, corresponding to the diverse nature of their devotional love.

There is in this a most hidden principle which only the greatest souls who are

possessed of the highest transcendental love, are enabled to realize by the

direct grace of Krsna. The truth is as follows: In this mundane world there are

fourteen spheres disposed in the traded order of high and low. Persons living

with wives and children hankering for the pleasure-giving effect of their frui-

tive actions, move up and down within the limits of the three worlds of Bhuh,

Bhuvah and Svah. Brahmacaris of great austerities, ascetics and persons

addicted to hypothetical truth, persons of a neutral disposition adopting

nonfruitive works by an aptitude which seeks to be free from all mundane

desires, move up and down within the limits of the worlds of Mahah, Janah,

Tapah and Satya. Above these worlds lies the abode of four-headed Brahma, above

which lies the unlimited realm of Vaikuntha of Visnu, Ksirodakasayi, lying in

the ocean of milk. Paramahamsa-sannyasis and the demons killed by Sri Hari, by

crossing the Viraja, i.e., by passing beyond the fourteen worlds, enter into

the luminous realm of Brahman and attain to nirvana in the form of temporary

abeyance of the temporal ego. But the devotee actuated by knowledge

(jnana-bhakta), the devotee actuated by the pure devotional aptitude

(suddha-bhakta). the devotee imbued with loving devotion (prema-bhakta), the

devotee actuated by pure love (premapara-bhakta), and the devotee impelled by

overwhelming love (prematura-bhakta), who serve the majesty of godhead, have

their locations in Vaikuntha, i.e., the transcendental realm of Sri Narayana.


The devotees who are imbued with all-love and who walk in the footsteps of the

spiritual maids of Vraja, alone attain to the realm of Goloka. The different

locations of the devotees in Goloka according to the respective differences in

the nature of their rasa, i.e., mellow quality are settled by the inconceivable

power of Krsna. The pure devotees following the devotees of Vraja and those

following the pure devotees of Navadvipa are located in the realm of Krsna and

Gaura respectively. The identical devotees of Vraja and Navadvipa

simultaneously attain to the pleasures of service in the realm of Krsna and

Gaura. Sri Jiva Gosvami writes in his work Gopala-campu that “the supreme

transcendental realm is called Goloka being the abode of go, transcendental

cows, and gopa, transcendental cowherds. This is the seat of the rasa pastimes

of the absolute Sri Krsna. Again the realm is called Svetadvipa owing to the

realization of some of the Russ which are the inconceivable manifestation

derived from the untouched purity of that supreme realm. The twofold entities

of the supreme Goloka and the supreme Svetadvipa are indivisibly the realm of

Goloka.” The gist of the whole matter is this–(Goloka as Svetadvipa is eter-

nally manifest because the pleasures of enjoyment of the rasa could not he had

in its entirety in the pastimes of Krsna in Vraja. He accepts the emotion and

effulgence of His predominated moiety, Sri Radhika, and makes an eternal

pastime for the enjoyment of krsna-rasa there. Sri Krsnacandra coveting to

taste the following pleasures, viz., to realize (1) the nature of the greatness

of love of Sri Radha; (2) the nature of the wonderful sweetness of His love of

which Sri Radhika has got the taste; (3) the nature of the exquisite joy that

accrues to Sri Radha by Her realization of the sweetness of His love, took His

birth, like the moon, in the ocean of the womb of Sri Saci-devi. The esoteric

desire of Sri Jiva Gosvami Prabhu is herein made manifest. In the Veda it is

also said, “Let me tell you the mystery. In Navadvipa, the identical realm of

Goloka, on the bank of the Ganges, Gauracandra who is Govinda, the entity of

pure cognition, who has two hands, who is the soul of all souls, who has the

supreme great personality as the great meditative sannyasin and who is beyond

the threefold mundane attributes, makes the process of pure unalloyed devotion

manifest in this mundane world. He is sole Godhead. He is the source of all

forms, the Supreme Soul and is Godhead manifesting Himself in yellow, red, blue

and white colors. He is the direct entity of pure cognition full of the

spiritual (cit) potency. He is the figure of the devotee. He is the bestower of

devotion and cognizable by devotion alone. The self same Gauracandra, who is no

other than Krsna Himself, in order to taste the rasa of the pastimes of

Radha-Krsna in Goloka, is manifest in the eternal realm of Navadvipa identical

with Goloka.” This is also clear from the Vedic declarations, viz., asan varnas

trayah, krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam, yatha pasyah pasyati rukma-varnam, mahan pra-

bhur vai and various other statements of the theistic scriptures. Just as Sri

Krsna had His birth in the mundane Gokula through the agency of Yoga Maya who

is the primal energy of the Supreme Lord, so with her help He manifests the

lila of His birth in the womb of Saci-devi in Navadvipa on this mundane plane.

These are the absolute truths of spiritual science and not the outcome of

imaginary speculation under the thraldom of the deluding energy of Godhead.






evam jyotir-mayo devah


sad-anandah parat parah


atmaramasya tasyasti


prakrtya na samagamah




evam–thus; jyotih-mayah–transcendental; devah–the Lord; sat-anandah–the own

Self of eternal ecstasies; parat parah–the superior of all superiors;

atma-aramasya–engaged in the enjoyments of the transcendental realm; tasya–of

Him; asti–there is; prakrtya–with the mundane potency; na–not;







The Lord of Gokula is the transcendental Supreme Godhead, the own Self of

eternal ecstasies. He is the superior of all superiors and is busily engaged in

the enjoyments of the transcendental realm and has no association with His

mundane potency.






The sole potency of Krsna which is spiritual, functioning as Krsna’s own proper

power, has manifested His pastimes of Goloka or Gokula. By her grace individual

souls who are constituents of the marginal potency can have admission into even

those pastimes. The deluding energy who is of the nature of the perverted

reflection of the spiritual (cit) potency, has got her location on the other

side of the river Viraja, which surrounds the Brahma-dhama forming the boundary

of Maha-Vaikuntha as the outer envelope of Goloka. The position of Goloka being

absolutely unalloyed with the mundane, deluding energy, far from having any

association with Krsna, feels ashamed to appear before His view.






na viyogas taya saha


atmana ramaya reme


tyakta-kalam sisrksaya




mayaya–with the illusory energy; aramamanasya–of Him, who never consorts;

na–not; viyogah–complete separation; taya–her; saha–from; atmana—with His

own; ramaya– spiritual potency, Rama; reme–consorts; tyakta-kalam–by casting

His glance in the shape of sending His time energy; sisrksaya–with the desire

to create.






Krsna never consorts with His illusory energy. Still her connection is not

entirely cut off from the Absolute Truth. When He intends to create the

material world the amorous pastime, in which He engages by consorting with His

own spiritual [cit] potency Rama by casting His glance at the deluding energy

in the shape of sending His time energy, is an auxiliary activity.






The illusory energy has no direct contact with Krsna, but has got indirect

contact. Vishnu the prime cause, lying in the Causal Ocean, the plenary portion

of Maha-Sankarsana who has His seat in Maha-Vaikuntha the sphere of Krsna’s own

extended transcendental pastimes, casts His glance towards the deluding energy.

Even in casting His glance He has no contact with the deluding energy because

the spiritual (cit) potency Rama then carries the function of His glance as His

unpolluted ever submissive potency. The deluding energy as the maidservant of

the spiritual (cit) potency Rama, serves the manifested plenary portion of

Godhead consorted with Rama, the time energy representing the force of activity

and instrumentality of Rama; hence there is found the process of masculinity or

the creative force.








niyatih sa rama devi


tat-priya tad-vasam tada


tal-lingam bhagavan sambhur


jyoti-rupah sanatanah


ya yonih sapara saktih


kamo bijam mahad dhreh




niyatih–the regulator; sa–she; rama—the spiritual potency; devi–the

goddess; tat–of Him; priya–beloved; tat–of Him; vasam–under the control;

tada–then (at the time of creation); tat–of Him; lingam–the masculine

symbol, or manifested emblem; bhagavan–possessing opulences; sambhuh– Sambhu;

jyotih-rupah–halo; sanatanah–eternal; ya–which; yonih–the symbol of mundane

feminine productivity; sa–that; apara–nonabsolute; saktih–potency;

kamah–the desire; bijam–the seed; mahat–the faculty of perverted cogni-

tion; hareh–of the Supreme Lord.






[The secondary process of association with Maya is described.] Ramadevi, the

spiritual [cit] potency, beloved consort of the Supreme Lord, is the regulatrix

of all entities. The divine plenary portion of Krsna creates the mundane world.

At creation there appears divine halo of the nature of His own subjective

portion [svamsa]. This halo is divine Sambhu, the masculine symbol or

manifested emblem of the Supreme Lord. This halo is the dim twilight reflection

of the supreme eternal effulgence. This masculine symbol is the subjective

portion of divinity who functions as progenitor of the mundane world, subject

to the supreme regulatrix [niyati]. The conceiving potency in regard to mundane

creation makes her appearance out of the supreme regulatrix. She is Maya, the

limited, non-absolute [apara] potency, the symbol of mundane feminine

productivity. The intercourse of these two brings forth the faculty of

perverter cognition, the reflection of the seed of the procreative desire of

the Supreme Lord.






Sankarsana possessed of creative desire is the subjective portion of Krsna

taking the initiative in bringing about the birth of the mundane world. Lying

in the causal water as the primalpurusa-avatara He casts His glance towards

Maya (the limited potency). Such glance is the efficient cause of the mundane

creation. Sambhu the symbol of masculine mundane procreation is the dim halo of

this reflected effulgence. It is this symbol which is applied to the organ of

generation of Maya, the shadow of Rama or the divine potency. The first phase

of the appearance at the mundane desire created by Maha-Visnu is called the

seminal principle of mahat or the perverted cognitive faculty. It is this which

is identical with the mental principle ripe for procreative activity. The

conception underlying it is that it is the will of the purusa who creates by

using the efficient and material principles. Efficiency is Maya or the

productive feminine organ. The material principle is Sambhu or the pro-

creative masculine organ. Maha-Visnu is purusa or the dominating divine person

wielding the will. Pradhana or the substantive principle in the shape of

mundane entities, is the material principle. Nature embodying the accommodating

principle (adhara), is Maya. The principle of embodied will bringing about the

intercourse of the two, is the dominating divine person (purusa), subjective

portion of Krsna, the manifestor of the mundane world. All of these three are

creators. The seed of amorous creative desire in Goloka, is the embodiment of

pure cognition. The seed of sex desire to be found in this mundane world, is

that of Kali, etc., who are the shadows of the divine potency. The former,

although it is the prototype of the latter is located very far from it. The

seed of the mundane sex desire is the perverted reflection in this mundane

world of the seed of the original creative desire. The process of the appear-

ance of Sambhu is recorded in the tenth and fifteenth slokas.






linga-yony-atmika jata


ima mahesvari-prajah




linga–of the mundane masculine generative organs; yoni– and of the mundane

feminine generative organs; atmikah–as the embodiment; jatah–born;

imah–these; mahesvari–of the consort of the great lord of this mundane world;

prajah–the offspring.






All offspring of the consort of the great lord [Mahesvara] of this mundane

world are of the nature of the embodiment of the mundane masculine and feminine

generative organms.






The full quadrantal extension of the Supreme Lord, is His majesty. Of this the

triquadrantal extensions of unlamenting, nonperishing and nonapprehending

situations constitute the majesties of the realms of Vaikuntha and Goloka, etc.

In this temporal realm of Maya devas and men, etc.–all these together with all

mundane worlds–are the great majesties of the limited potency. All these

entities are embodiments of the masculine and feminine organs of generation by

the distinction of efficient and material causal principles; or, in other

words, they are produced by the process of sexual intercourse between the male

and female organs of generation. All the information that has been accumulated

by the agency of the sciences of this world, possesses this nature of sexual

co-union. Trees, plants and even all insentient entities are embodiments of the

co-union of male and female. The feature that is of special significance is

that although such expressions as “the generative organs of male and female”

are indecorous yet in scientific literature these words, expressing the

above-mentioned principles, are exceedingly wholesome and productive of abiding

value. Indecorum is merely an entity pertaining to the external custom of

society. But science, and specially the highest science, cannot destroy the

true entity by deference to social custom. Wherefore, in order to demonstrate

the seed of mundane sex desire, the basic principle of this phenomenal world,

the use of those identical words is indispensable. By the use of all these

words only the masculine energy or the predominating active potency, and female

energy or the predominated active potency are to be understood.






saktiman purusah so ‘yam


linga-rupi mahesvarah


tasminn avirabhul linge


maha-visnur jagat-patih




saktiman–joined to his female consort; purusah–person; sah–he; ayam–this;

linga-rupi–in the form of the male generating organ; maha-isvarah–Sambhu, the

lord of this mundane world; tasmin–in that; avirabhut–manifested; linge– in

the manifested emblem. maha-visnuh–Maha-Visnu; jagat-patih–the Lord of the







The person embodying the material causal principle, viz., the great lord of

this mundane world [Mahesvaral Sambhu, in the form of the male generating

organ, is joined to his female consort the limited energy [Maya] as the

efficient causal principle. The Lord of the world Maha-Visnu is manifest in him

by His subjective portion in the form of His glance.






In the transcendental atmosphere (para-vyoma), where spiritual majesty

preponderates, there is present Sri Narayana who is not different from Krsna.

Maha-Sankarsana, subjective plenary facsimile of the extended personality of

Sri Narayana, is also the divine plenary portion of the propagatory embodiment

of Sri Krsna. By the power of His spiritual energy a plenary subjective portion

of Him, eternally reposing in the neutral stream of Viraja forming the boundary

between the spiritual and mundane realms, casts His glance, at creation, unto

the limited shadow potency, Maya, who is located far away from Himself.

Thereupon Sambhu, lord of pradhana embodying the substantive principles of all

material entities, who is the same as Rudra, the dim reflection of the Supreme

Lord’s own divine glance, consummates his intercourse with Maya, the efficient

mundane causal principle. But he can do nothing independently of the energy of

Maha-Visnu representing the direct spiritual power of Krsna. Therefore, the

principle of mahat, or the perverted cognitive faculty, is produced only when

the subjective plenary portion of Krsna, viz., the prime divine avatara

Maha-Visnu who is the subjective portion of Sankarsana, Himself the subjective

portion of Krsna, is propitious towards the active mutual endeavors of Maya,

Siva’s consort (sakti), and pradhana or the principle of substantive mundane

causality. Agreeably to the initiative of Maha-Visnu the consort of Siva

creates successively the mundane ego (ahankara), the five mundane elements

(bhutas) viz., space etc., their attributes (tan-matros) and the limited senses

of the conditioned soul (jiva). The constituent particles, in the form of

pencils of effulgence of Maha-Visnu, are manifest as the individual souls

(jivas). This will be elaborted in the sequel.






sahasra-sirsa purusah


sahasraksah sahasra-pat


sahasra-bahur visvatma


sahasramsah sahasra-suh




sahasra-sirsa–possessing thousands of heads; purusah–Lord Maha-Visnu, the

first purusa-avatara; sahasra-aksah– possessing thousands of eyes;

sahasra-pat–possessing thousands of legs; sahasra-bahuh–possessing thousands

of arms; visva-atma—the Supersoul of the universe; sahasra-amsah– the source

of thousands of avataras; sahasra-suh–the creator of thousands of individual







The Lord of the mundane world, Maha-Visnu, possesses thousands of thousands of

heads, eyes, hands. He is the source of thousands of thousands of avataras in

His thousands of thousands of subjective portions. He is the creator of

thousands of thousands of individual souls.






Maha-Visnu, the object of worship of the hymns of all the Vedas, is possessed

of an infinity of senses and potencies, and He is the prime avatara-purusa, the

source of all the avataras.






narayanah sa bhagavan


apas tasmat sanatanat


avirasit karanarno


nidhih sankarsanatmakah


yoga-nidram gatas tasmin


sahasramsah svayam mahan




narayanah–named Narayana; sah–that; bhagavan–Supreme Personality of Godhead,

Maha-Visnu; apah–water; tasmat– from that; sanatanat–eternal person;

avirasit–has sprung; karana-arnah–the Causal Ocean; nidhih–expanse of water;

sankarsana-atmakah–the subjective portion of Sankarsana; yoga-nidram gatah–in

the state of deep sleep; tasmin–in that (water); sahasra-amsah–with thousands

of portions; svayam– Himself; mahan–the Supreme Person.






The same Maha-Visnu is spoken of by the name of “Narayana” in this mundane

world. From that eternal person has sprung the vast expanse of water of the

spiritual Causal Ocean. The subjective portion of Sankarsana who abides in

paravyoma, the above supreme purusa with thousands of subjective portions,

reposes in the state of divine sleep (yoga-nidra] in the waters of the

spiritual Causal Ocean.






Yoga-nidra (divine sleep) is spoken of as ecstatic trance which is of the

nature of the bliss of the true subjective personality. The above-mentioned

Ramadevi is yoga-nidra in the form of Yoga Maya.








bijam sankarsanasya ca


haimany andani jatani


maha-bhutavrtani tu




tat–of Him (Maha-Visnu); roma-bila-jalesu–in the pores of the skin;

bijam–the seeds; sankarsanasya–of Sankarsana; ca–and; haimani–golden;

andani–eggs or sperms; jatani– born; maha-bhuta–by the five great elements;

avrtani– covered; tu–certainly.






The spiritual seeds of Sankarsana existing in the pores of skin of Maha-Visnu,

are born as so many golden sperms. These sperms are covered with five great







The prime divine avatara lying in the spiritual Causal Ocean is such a great

affair that in the pores of His divine form spring up myriads of seeds of the

universes. Those series of universes are the perverted resections of the

infinite transcendental region. As long as they remain embedded in His divine

form they embody the principle of spiritual reflection having the form of

golden eggs. Nevertheless by the creative desire of Maha-Visnu the minute

particle of the great elements, which are constituents of the mundane efficient

and material causal principles, envelop them. When those golden sperms, coming

out with the exhalation of Maha-Visnu, enter into the unlimited accommodating

chamber of the limited potency (Maya) they become enlarged by the

nonconglomerate great elements.






praty-andam evam ekamsad


ekamsad visati svayam




maha-visnuh sanatanah




prati–each; andam–egg like universe; evam–thus; eka-amsat eka-amsat–as His

own separate subjective portions; visati–enters; svayam–personally;

sahasra-murdha—possessing thousands of heads; visva-atma–the Supersoul of

the universe; maha-visnuh–Maha-Visnu; sanatanah–eternal.






The same Maha-Visnu entered into each universe as His own separate subjective

portions. The divine portions, that entered into each universe are possessed of

His majestic extension, i.e., they are the eternal universal soul Maha-Visnu,

possessing thousands of thousands of heads.






Maha-Visnu lying in the spiritual Causal Ocean is the subjective portion of

Maha-Sankarsana. He entered, as His own subjective portions, into those

universes. These individual portions all represent the second divine purusa

lying in the ocean of conception and is identical with Maha-Visnu in every

respect. He is also spoken of as the divine guide, from within, of all








vamangad asrjad visnum


daksinangat prajapatim


jyotir-linga-mayam sambhum


kurca-desad avasrjat




vama-angat–from His left limb; asrjat–He created; visnum– Lord Vishnu;

daksina-angat–from His right limb; prajapatim– Hiranyagarbha Brahma;

jyotih-linga–the divine masculine manifested halo; mayam–comprising;

sambhum–Sambhu; kurca-desat–from the space between His two eyebrows;

avasrat–He created.






The same Maha-Visnu created Visnu from His left limb, Brahma, the first

progenitor of beings, from His right limb and, from the space between His two

eyebrows, Sambhu, the divine masculine manifested halo.






The divine purusa, lying in the ocean of milk, the same who is the regulator of

all individual souls, is Sri Visnu; and Hiranyagarbha, the seminal principle,

the portion of the Supreme Lord, is the prime progenitor who is different from

the four-faced Brahma. This same Hiranyagarbha is the principle of seminal

creating energy of every Brahma belonging to each of the infinity of universes.

The divine masculine manifested halo, Sambhu, is the plenary manifestation of

his prototype Sambhu, the same as the primary divine masculine generative

symbol Sambhu whose nature has already been described. Vishnu is the integral

subjective portion of Maha-Visnu. Hence He is the great Lord of all the other

lords. The progenitor (Brahma) and Sambhu are the dislocated portions of

Maha-Visnu. Hence they are gods with delegated functions. His own potency being

on the left side of Godhead, Vishnu appears in the left limb of Maha-Visnu from

the unalloyed essence of His spiritual (cit) potency. Vishnu, who is Godhead

Himself, is the inner guiding oversoul of every individual soul. He is the

Personality of Godhead described in the Vedas as being of the measure of a

thumb. He is the nourisher. The karmis (elevationists) worship Him as Narayana,

the Lord of sacrifices, and the yogis desire to merge their identities in Him

as Paramatma, by the process of their meditative trance.






ahankaratmakam visvam


tasmad etad vyajayata




ahankara–the mundane egotistic principle; atmakam–enshrining;

visvam–universe; tasmat–from that (Sambhu); etat– this; vyajayata–has







The function of Sambhu in relation to jivas is that this universe enshrining

the mundane egotistic principle has originated from Sambhu.






The basic principle is the Supreme Lord Himself who is the embodiment of the

principle of existence of all entities devoid of separating egotisms. In this

mundane world the appearance of individual entities as separated egotistic

symbols, is the limited perverted reflection of the unalloyed spiritual (cit)

potency; and, as representing the primal masculine divine generative function

Sambhu, it is united to the accommodating principle, viz., the mundane female

organ which is the perverted reflection of the spiritual (cit) potency,

Ramadevi. At this function Sambhu is nothing but the mere material clausal

principle embodying the extension in the shape of ingredient as matter. Again

when in course of the progressive evolution of mundane creation each universe

is manifested, then in the principle of Sambhu, born of the space between the

two eyebrows of Vishnu, there appears the manifestation of the personality of

Rudra; yet under all circumstances Sambhu fully enshrines the mundane egotistic

principle. The innumerable Jivas as spiritual particles emanating from the

oversoul in the form of pencils of rays of effulgence, have no relation with

the mundane world when they come to know themselves to be the eternal servants

of the Supreme Lord. They are then incorporated into the realm of Vaikuntha.

But when they desire to lord it over Maya, forgetting their real identity, the

egotistic principle Sambhu entering into their entities makes them identify

themselves as separated enjoyers of mundane entities. Hence Sambhu is the

primary principle of the egotistic mundane universe and of perverted egotism in

jivas that identifies itself with their limited material bodies.






atha tais tri-vidhair vesair


lilam udvahatah kila


yoga-nidra bhagavati


tasya srir iva sangata




atha–thereupon; taih–with those; tri-vidhaih–threefold; vesaih–forms;

lilam–pastimes; udvahatah–carrying on; kila–indeed; yoga-nidra–Yoganidra;

bhagavati–full of the ecstatic trance of eternal bliss; tasya–of Him;

srih–the goddess of fortune; iva–like; sangata–consorted with. TRANSLATION






Thereupon the same great personal Godhead, assuming the threefold forms of

Vishnu, Prajapati and Sambhu, entering into the mundane universe, plays the

pastimes of preservation, creation and destruction of this world. This pastime

is contained in the mundane world. Hence, it being perverted, the Supreme Lord,

identical with Maha-Visnu, prefers to consort with the goddess Yoganidra, the

constituent of His own spiritual [cit] potency full of the ecstatic trance of

eternal bliss appertaining to His own divine personality.






The dislocated portions of the Divinity, viz., Prajapati and Sambhu, both

identifying themselves as entities who are separate from the divine essence,

sport with their respective non-spiritual (acit) consorts, viz., Savitri-devi

and Uma-devi, the perverted reflections of the spiritual (cit) potency. The

Supreme Lord Vishnu is the only Lord of the spiritual (cit) potency, Rama or







sisrksayam tato nabhes


tasya padmam viniryayau


tan-nalam hema-nalinam


brahmano lokam adbhutam




sisrksayam–when there was the will to create; tatah–then; nabheh–from the

navel; tasya–of Him; padmam–a lotus; viniryayau–came out; tat-nalam–its

stem; hema-nalinam–like a golden lotus; brahmanah–of Brahma; lokam–the

abode; adbhutam–wonderful.






When Visnu lying in the ocean of milk wills to create this universe, a golden

lotus springs from His navel-pit. The golden lotus with its stem is the abode

of Brahma representing Brahmaloka or Satyaloka.






“Gold” here means the dim reflection of pure cognition.






tattvani purva-rudhani


karanani parasparam


samavayaprayogac ca


vibhinnani prthak prthak




cic-chaktya sajjamano ‘tha


bhagavan adi-purusah


yojayan mayaya devo


yoga-nidram akalpayat




tattvani–elements; purva-rudhani–previously created; karanani–causes;

parasparam–mutually, samavaya–of the process of conglomeration;

aprayogat–from the nonapplication; ca–and; vibhinnani–separate; prthak

prthak–one from another; cit-saktya–with His spiritual potency; sajjamanah–

associating; atha–then; bhagavan–the Supreme Personality of Godhead;

adi-purusah–the primal Godhead; yojayan– causing to join; mayaye–with Maya;

divah–the Lord, yoga-nidram–Yoganidra; akalpayat–He consorted with.






Before their conglomeration the primary elements in their nascent state

remained originally separate entities. Non-applialtion of the conglomerating

process is the cause of their separate existence. Divine Maha-Visnu, primal

Godhead, through association with His own spiritual [cit] potency, moved Maya

and by the application of the conglomerating principle created those different

entities in their state of cooperation. And after that He Himself consorted

with Yoganidra by way of His eternal dalliance with His spiritual [cit]







Mayadhyaksena prakrtih suyate sa-caracaram: “The mundane energy prakrti gives

birth to this universe of animate and inanimate beings by My direction.” The

purport of this sloka of the Gita is that Maya, the perverted reflection of

spiritual (cit) potency was at first inactive and her extension of matter

constituting the material cause was also in the separately dislocated state. In

accordance with the will of Krsna this world is manifested as the resultant of

the union of the efficient and the material causal principles of Maya. In spite

of that, the Supreme Lord Himself remains united with His exit potency, Yoga-

nidra. The word yoganidra or yogamaya indicates as follows: The nature of cit

potency is manifestive of the Absolute Truth, while the nature of her perverted

reflection, Maya, is envelopment in the gloom of ignorance. When Krsna desires

to manifest something in the mundane ignorance-wrapt affairs, He does this by

the conjunction of His spiritual potency with His inactive nonspiritual

potency. This is known as Yogamaya. It carries a twofold notion, namely,

transcendental notion and mundane inert notion. Krsna Himself, His subjective

portions and those jivas who are His unalloyed separated particles, realize the

transcendental notion in that conjunction, while conditioned souls feel the

mundane inert notion. The external coating of transcendental knowledge in the

conscious activities of conditioned souls, bears the name of Yoganidra. This is

also an influence of the cit potency of the Divinity. This principle will be

more elaborately considered hereafter.






yojayitva tu tany eva


pravivesa svayam guham


guham praviste tasmims tu


jivatma pratibudhyate




yojayitva–after conglomerating; tu–then; tani–them; eva– certainly;

pravivesa–He entered; svayam–Himself; guham–the hidden cavity; guham–the

hidden cavity; praviste–after He entered; tasmin–within that; tu–then;

jiva-atma–the jivas; pratibudhyate–were awakened.






By conglomerating all those separate entities He manifested the innumerable

mundane universes and Himself entered into the inmost recess of every extended

conglomerate [virad-vigraha]. At that time those jiivas who had lain dormant

during the cataclysm were awakened.






The word guha (hidden cavity) bears various interpretations in the sastras. In

some portions the nonmanifestive pastimes of the Lord is called guha and

elsewhere the resting place of the indwelling spirit of all individual souls,

is named guha. In many places the inmost recesses of the heart of each

individual is termed guha. The main point is that the place which is hidden

from the view of men in general, is designated guha. Those jivas that were

merged in Hari at the end of the life of Brahma in the great cataclysm during

the preceding great age of the universe, reappeared in this world in accordance

with their former fruitive desires.






sa nityo nitya-sambandhah


prakrtis ca paraiva sa




sah–that (jiva); nityah–eternal; nitya-sambandhah–possessing an eternal

relationship; prakrtih–potency; ca–and; para–spiritual; eva–certainly;







The same jiiva is eternal and is for eternity and without a beginning joined to

the Supreme Lord by the tie of an eternal kinship. He is transcendental

spiritual potency.




Just as the sun is eternally associated with his rays so the transcendental

Supreme Lord is eternally joined with the jivas. The jives are the

infinitesimal particles of His spiritual effulgence and are, therefore, not

perishable like mundane things. Jivas, being particles of Godhead’s effulgent

rays, exhibit on a minute scale the qualities of the Divinity. Hence jivas are

identical with the principles of knowledge, knower, egoism, enjoyed, meditator

and doer. Krsna is the all-pervading, all-extending Supreme Lord; while jivas

have a different nature from His, being His atomic particles. That eternal

relationship consists in this that the Supreme Lord is the eternal master and

jivas are His eternal servants. Jivas have also sufficient eligibility in

respect at the mellow quality of the Divinity. Apareyam itas tv anyam prakrtim

viddhi me param. By this verse of the Gita it is made known that jivas are His

transcendental potency. All the qualities of the unalloyed soul are above the

eightfold qualities such as egotism, etc., pertaining to His acit potency.

Hence the jiva potency, though very small in magnitude, is still superior to

acit potency or Maya. This potency has another name, viz., tatastha or marginal

potency being located on the line demarcating the spheres of the spiritual and

mundane potencies. He is susceptible to the influence of the material energy

owing to his small magnitude. But so long as he remains submissive to Krsna,

the Lord of Maya, he is not liable to the influence of Maya. The worldly

afflictions, births and rebirths are the concomitants of the fettered condition

of souls fallen into the clutches of the deluding potency from a time that has

no beginning.






evam sarvatma-sambandham


nabhyam padmam harer abhut


tatra brahmabhavad bhuyas


catur-vedi catur-mukhah




evam–thus; sarva-atma–with all souls; sambandham–related; nabhyam–from the

navel; padmam–a lotus; hareh–of Visnu; abhut–sprung up; tatra–there;

Brahma–Brahma; abhavat–was born; bhuyah–again; catuh-vedi–versed in the

four Vedas; catuh-mukhah–four-faced.






The divine lotus which springs from the navel-pit of Visnu is in every way

related by the spiritual tie with all souls and is the origin of four-faced

Brahma versed in the four Vedas.






The same divine lotus originating from the divine person entered into the

hidden recess, is the superior plane of aggregation of all individual souls.

The four-faced Brahma, the image of self-enjoyment, derives his origin from the

prototype Brahma or Hiranyagarbha, the mundane seminal principle, who regards

the aggregate of all mundane entities as his own proper body. The delegated

godship of Brahma as well as his being the dislocated portion of Krsna, are

also established.






sanjato bhagavac-chaktya


tat-kalam kila coditah


sisrksayam matim cakre




dadarsa kevalam dhvantam


nanyat kim api sarvatah




sanjatah–on being born; bhagavat-saktya–by the divine potency; tat-kalam–at

that time; kila–indeed; coditah–being guided; sisrksayam–to the act of

creation; matim–his mind; cakre–turned; purva-samskara-samskrtah–under the

impulse of previous impressions; dadarsa–he saw; kevalam– only;

dhvantam–darkness; na–not; anyat–else; kim api– anything; sarvatah–in

every direction.






On coming out of the lotus, Brahma, being guided by the divine potency turned

his mind to the act of creation under the impulse of previous impressions. But

he could see nothing but darkness in every direction.






Brahma’s impulse for creation arises solely from his previous impressions. All

jivas get their nature conformably to their impressions of previous births and

accordingly their activity can have a beginning. It is called “the unseen” or

the result of one’s previous deeds. His natural impulse is formed according to

the nature of the deeds done by him in the previous kalpa. Some of the eligible

jivas also attain to the office of Brahma in this way.








uvaca puratas tasmai


tasya divya sarasvati


kama-krsnaya govinda


he gopi-ana ity api


vallabhaya priya vahner


mantram te dasyati priyam




uvaca–said; puratah–in front; tasmai–to him; tasya–of Him (the Supreme

Lord); divya–divine; sarasvati–the goddess of learning; kama–the kama-bija

(klim); krsnaya–to Krsna; govinda–govindaya, to Govinda; he–O; gopi-jana–

of the gopis; iti–thus; api–also; vallabhaya–to the dear one; priya

vahneh–the wife of Agni, Svaha (the word svaha is uttered while offering

oblations); mantram–mantra; te–to you; dasyati–will give; priyam–the

heart’s desire.






Then the goddness of learning Sarasvati, the divine consort of the Supreme

Lord, said thus to Brahma who saw nothing but gloom in all directions, “O

Brahma, this mantra, viz., klim krsnaya govindaya gopi-jana-vallabhaya svaha,

will assuredly fulfill your heart’s desire.”






The mantra, consisting of the eighteen divine letters prefixed by the

kama-bija, is alone superexcellent. It has a twofold aspect. One aspect is that

it tends to make the pure soul run after all-attractive Sri Krsna, the Lord of

Gokula and the divine milkmaids. This is the acme of the spiritual tendency of

jivas. When the devotee is free from all sorts of mundane desires and willing

to serve the Lord he attains the fruition of his heart’s desire, viz., the love

of Krsna. But in the case of the devotee who is not of unmixed aptitude this

superexcellent mantra fulfills his heart’s desire also. The transcendental

kama-bija is inherent in the divine logos located in Goloka; and the kama-bija

pervertedly reflected in the worldly affairs satisfies all sorts of desires of

this mundane world.






tapas tvam tapa etena


tava siddhir bhavisyati




tapah–spiritual austerity; tvam–you; tapa–practice; etena– by this;

tava–your; siddhih–fulfillment; bhavisyati–will be.






“O Brahma, do thou practice spiritual association by means of this mantra; then

all your desires will be fulfilled.”






Its purport is clear.






atha tepe sa suciram


prinan govindam avyayam


svetadvipa-patim krsnam


goloka-stham parat param




prakrtya guna-rupinya


rupinya paryupasitam








bhumis cintamanis tatra


karnikare mahasane


samasinam cid-anandam


jyoti-rupam sanatanam




sabda-brahma-mayam venum


vadayantam mukhambuje




svaih svair amsair abhistutam




atha–then: tepe–practiced austerity; sa–he (Brahma); suciram–for a long

time; prinan–satisfying; govindam–Govinda; avyayam–imperishable;

svetadvipa-patim–the Lord of Svetadvipa; krsnam–Krsna; goloka-stham–situated

in Goloka; parat param–the greatest of all; prakrtya–by the external energy;

guna-rupinya–embodying all mundane qualities; rupinya–possessing form;

paryupasitam–worshiped from outside; sahasra-dala-sampanne–on a lotus of a

thousand petals; koti-kinjalka–by millions of filaments; brmhite–augmented;

bhumih–the land; cintamanih–magical touchstone; tatra–there; karnikare–on

the whorl; maha-asane–on a great throne; samasinam–seated; cit-anandam–the

form of transcendental bliss; jyotih-rupam–the form of effulgence;

sanatanam–eternal; sabda-brahma–divine sound; mayam– comprising; venum–the

flute; vadayantam–playing; mukha-ambuje–at His lotus mouths;

vilasini-gana–by the gopis; vrtam–surrounded; svaih svaih–own respective;

amsaih–by subjective portions; abhistutam–worshiped.






Brahma, being desirous of satisfying Govinda, practiced the cultural acts for

Krsna in Goloka, Lord of Svetadvipa, for a long time. His meditation ran thus,

“There exists a divine lotus of a thousand petals, augmented by millions of

filaments, in the transcendental land of Goloka. On its whorl, there exists a

great divine throne on which is seated Sri Krsna, the form of eternal

effulgence of transcendental bliss, playing on His divine flute resonant with

the divine sound, with His lotus mouth. He is worshiped by His amorous

milkmaids with their respective subjective portions and extensions and also by

His external energy [who stays outside] embodying all mundane qualities.”






Although the object of meditation is fully transcendental, yet owing to her

nature which is permeated with the quality of active mundane hankering, Maya,

the nonspiritual potency of Krsna, embodying the principles of mixed sattva,

rajahs, and tamas, in the forms of Durga, and other nonspiritual powers,

meditated on the Supreme Lord Krsna as the object of their worship. So long as

there is any trace of mundane desire in one’s heart, it is the object of

worship of Mayadevi (Durga) who has to be worshiped by such a person;

nevertheless the fulfillment of one’s heart’s desire results from the worship

of the object of worship of Mayadevi, and not from the worship of Mayadevi

herself. This is in accordance with the sloka, akamah sarva-kamo va moksa-kama

udara-dhih / tivrena bhakti-yogena yajeta purusam param. The meaning of this

sloka of the Bhagavatam is that though other gods, as distinct manifestations

of the Supreme Lord, are bestowers of sundry specific boons, yet a sensible

person should worship the all-powerful Supreme Lord, giver of all good, with

unalloyed devotion, without worshiping those mundane gift-giving deities.

Accordingly, Brahma meditated upon Krsna in Goloka, the object of the worship,

from a distance, of Mayadevi. True devotion is unalloyed devotional activity

free from all mundane desire. The devotion of Brahma, etc., is not unmixed

devotion. But there is a stage of unmixed predilection even in devotion for the

attainment of one’s selfish desire. This has been fully described in the

concluding five slokas of this work. That is the easiest method of divine

service, prior to the attainment of self-realization, by fallen souls.






atha venu-ninadasya


trayi-murti-mayi gatih


sphuranti pravivesasu


mukhabjani svayambhuvah




gayatrim gayatas tasmad


adhigatya sarojajah


samskrtas cadi-guruna


dvijatam agamat tatah




atha–then; venu-ninadasya–of the sound of the flute; trayi-murti-mayi–the

mother of the three Vedas; gatih–the means (the Gayatri mantra);

sphuranti–being made manifest; pravivesa–entered; asu–quickly;

mukha-abjani–the lotus faces; svayambhuvah–of Brahma; gayatrim–the Gayatri;

gayatah– sounding; tasmat–from Him (Sri Krsna); adhigatya–having received;

saroja-jah–the lotus-born (Brahma); samskrtah–initiated; ca–and;

adi-guruna–by the primal preceptor; dvijatam–the status of the twice-born;

agamat–attained; tatah–thereafter.






Then Gayatri, mother of the Vedas, being made manifest, i.e. imparted, by the

divine sound of the flute of Sri Krsna, entered into the lotus mouth of Brahma,

born from himself, through his eight ear-holes. The lotus-born Brahma having

received the Gayatri, sprung from the flute-song of Sri Krsna, attained the

status of the twice-born, having been initiated by the supreme primal

preceptor, Godhead Himself






The sound of Krsna’s flute is the transcendental blissful sound; hence the

archetype of all Veda, is present in it. The Gayatri is Vedic rhythm. It

contains a brief meditation and prayer. Kama-gayatri is the highest of all the

Gayatris, because the meditation and prayer contained in it are full of the

perfect transcendental sportive activities which are not to be found in any

other Gayatri. The Gayatri that is attained as the sequel of the

eighteen-lettered mantra is kama-gayatri which runs thus: klim kama-devaya

vidmahe puspa-banaya dhimahi tan no ‘nangah pracodayat. In this Gayatri. the

realization of the transcendental pastimes of Sri Gopijana-vallabha after

perfect meditation and the prayer for the attainment of the transcendental god

of love are indicated. In the spiritual world there is no better mode of

endeavor for securing the superexcellent rasa-bedewed love. As soon as that

Gayatri entered into the ear-holes of Brahma, he became the twice-born and

began to chant the Gayatri. Whoever has received the same Gayatri in reality,

has attained his spiritual rebirth. The status of a twice born that is obtained

in accordance with one’s worldly nature and lineage, by the fettered souls in

this mundane world, is far inferior to that of the twice-born who obtains

admission into the transcendental world; because the initiation or acquisition

of transcendental birth as a result of spiritual initiation is the highest of

glories in as much as the jiva is thereby enabled to attain to the

transcendental realm.






trayya prabuddho ‘tha vidhir




tustava veda-sarena


stotrenanena kesavam




trayya–by the embodiment of the three Vedas; prabuddhah– enlightened;

atha–then; vidhih–Brahma; vijnata–acquainted with; tattva-sagarah–the ocean

of truth; tustava–worshiped; veda-sarena–which is the essence of all Vedas;

stotrena–by the hymn; anena–this; kesavam–Sri Krsna.






Enlightened by the recollection of that Gayatri, embodying the three Vedas,

Brahma became acquainted with the expanse of the ocean of truth. Then he

worshiped Sri Krsna, the essence of all Vedas, with this hymn.






Brahma thought thus within himself, “By the recollections of kama-gayatri it

seems to me that I am the eternal maidservant of Krsna.” Though the other

mysteries in regard to the condition of the maidservant of Krsna were not

revealed to him, Brahma, by dint of his searching self-consciousness, became

well acquainted with the ocean of truth. All the truths of the Vedas were

revealed to him and with the help of those essences of the Vedas he offered

this hymn to the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. Sriman Mahaprabhu has taught this hymn

to His favorite disciples in as much as it fully contains all the

transcendental truths regarding the Vaisnava philosophy. Readers are re-

quested to study and try to enter into the spirit of his hymn with great care

and attention, as a regular daily function.








cintamani-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vrksa-


laksavrtesu surabhir abhipalayantam




govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




cintamani–touchstone; prakara–groups made of; sadmasu–in abodes;

kalpa-vrksa–of desire trees; laksa–by millions; avrtesu–surrounded;

surabhih–surabhi cows; abhipalayan-tam–tending; laksmi–of goddesses of

fortune; sahasra–of thousands; sata–by hundreds; sambhrama–with great re-

spect; sevyamanam–being served; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original

person; tam–Him; aham–l; bhaami– worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor who is tending the

cows, yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems, surrounded by

millions of purpose trees, always served with great reverence and affection by

hundreds of thousands of laksmis or gopis






By the word cintamani is meant “transcendental gem.” Just as Maya builds this

mundane universe with the five material elements, so the spiritual (cit)

potency has built the spiritual world of transcendental gems. The cintamani

which serves as material in the building of the abode of the Supreme Lord of

Goloka, is a far rarer and more agreeable entity than the philosopher’s stone.

The purpose tree yields only the fruits of piety, wealth, fulfillment of desire

and liberation; but the purpose trees in the abode of Krsna bestow innumerable

fruits in the shape of checkered divine love. Kama-dhenus (cows yielding the

fulfillment of desire) give milk when they are milked; but the kama-dhenus of

Goloka pour forth oceans of milk in the shape of the fountain of love showering

transcendental bliss that does away with the hunger and thirst of all pure

devotees. The words laksa and sahasra-sata signify endless numbers. The word

sambhrama or sadara indicates “being saturated with love.” Here laksmi denotes

gopi. Adi-purusa means, “He who is the primeval Lord.”






venum kvanantam aravinda-dalayataksam


barhavatamsam asitambuda-sundarangam




govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




venum–the flute; kvanantam–playing; aravinda-dala–(like) lotus petals;

ayata–blooming; aksam–whose eyes; barha–a peacock’s feather;

avatamsam–whose ornament on the head; asita-ambuda–(tinged with the hue of)

blue clouds; sundara–beautiful; angam–whose figure; kandarpa–of Cupid;

koti–millions; kamaniya–charming; visesa–unique; sobham– whose loveliness;

govindam–Govinda, adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I;







I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is adept in playing on His flute,

with blooming eyes like lotus petals with head decked with peacock’s feather,

with the figure of beauty tinged with the hue of blue clouds, and His unique

loveliness charming millions of Cupids.






The matchless beauty of Krsna, the Supreme Lord of Goloka, is being described.

Krsna, the all-pervading cognition, has a spiritual form of His own. The form

of Krsna is not a fanciful creation of imagination formed after visualizing the

beautiful things of the world. What Brahma saw in his ecstatic trance of pure

devotion, is being described. Krsna is engaged in playing upon His flute. That

flute by his enchanting musical sound attracts the hearts of all living beings.

Just as a lotus petal produces a pleasant sight, so the two beautiful eyes of

Krsna who causes the manifestation of our spiritual vision, display the

unlimited splendor and beauty of His moonlike face. The loveliness that adorns

His head with peacock feather figures, the corresponding feature of the

spiritual beauty of Krsna. Just as a mass of blue clouds offers a specifically

soothing, pleasant view, the complexion of Krsna is analogously tinged with a

spiritual dark-blue color. The beauty and loveliness of Krsna is far more

enchanting that that of Cupid multiplied a millionfold.








ratnangadam pranaya-keli-kala-vilasam


syamam tri-bhanga-lalitam niyata-prakasam


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




alola–swinging; candraka–with a moon-locket; lasat–beautified; vana-malya–a

garland of flowers; vamsi–flute; ratna- angadam–adorned with jeweled

ornaments; pranaya–of love; keli-kala–in pastimes; vilasam–who always

revels; syamam–Syamasundara; tri-bhanga–bending in three places;

lalitam–graceful; niyata–eternally; prakasam–manifest ; govindam–Govinda;

adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, round whose neck is swinging a garland of

flowers beautified with the moon-locket, whose two hands are adorned with the

flute and jeweled ornaments, who always revels in pastimes of Lowe, whose

graceful threefold-bending form of Syamasundara is eternally manifest.






In the sloka beginning with cintamani-prakara the transcendental region and the

spiritual names of Govinda, in the sloka beginning with venum kvanantam, the

eternal beautiful form of Govinda and in this sloka the amorous pastimes of

Govinda, the embodiment of His sixty-four excellences, have been described. All

the spiritual affairs that come within the scope of description in the

narration of the ecstatic mellow quality (rasa) are included in the spiritual

amorous sports of Govinda.






angani yasya sakalendriya-vrtti-manti


pasyanti panti kalayanti ciram jaganti




govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




angoni–the limbs; yasya–of whom; sakala-indriya–of all the organs;

vrtti-manti–possessing the functions; pasyanti–see; panti–maintain;

kalayanti–manifest; ciram–eternally; jaganti–the universes; ananda–bliss;

cit–truth; maya–full of; sat–substantiality; ujjvala–full of dazzling

splendor; vigrahasya–whose form; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original

person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lords whose transcendental form is full of

bliss, truth, substantiality and is thus full of the most dazzling splendor.

Each of the limbs of that transcendental figure possesses in Himself, the

full-fledged functions of all the organs, and eternally sees, maintains and

manifests the infinite universes, both spiritual and mundane.






For want of a taste of things spiritual, a grave doubt arises in the minds of

those who are enchained by worldly knowledge. On hearing a narration of the

pastimes of Krsna they think that the truth (tattva) regarding Krsna is the

mental concoction of certain learned scholars, created by their imaginative

brains out of material drawn from the mundane principles. With the object of

removing this harmful doubt, Brahma in this and the three following slokas,

after distinguishing between the two things, viz., spirit and matter, in a

rational manner, has tried to make one understand the pure lila of Krsna,

obtained by his unmixed ecstatic trance. Brahma wants to say that the form of

Krsna is all-existence, all-knowledge and all-bliss, whereas all mundane

experiences are full of palpable ignorance. Although there is specific

difference between the two, the fundamental truth is that spiritual affairs

constitute the absolute source. Specification and variegatedness are ever

present in it. By them are established the transcendental abode, form, name,

quality and sports of Krsna. It is only by a person, possessed of pure

spirituals knowledge and freedom from any relationship with Maya, that those

amorous pastimes of Krsna can at all be appreciated. The spiritual abode, the

seat of pastimes, emanated from the cit potency and formed of cintamani (tran-

scendental philosopher’s stone), and the figure of Krsna, are all spiritual.

Just as Maya is the perverted reflection of the spiritual potency, the

variegatedness created by Maya (ignorance) is also a perverted reflection of

spiritual variegatedness. So a mere semblance of the spiritual variegatedness

is only noticed in this mundane world. Notwithstanding such semblance the two

are wholly different from one another. The unwholesomeness of matter is its

defect; but in the spirit there is variegatedness which is free from any fault

or contamination. The soul and the body of Krsna are identical, whereas the

body and soul of fallen creatures are not so. In the spiritual sphere there is

no such difference as that between the body and soul, between the limbs and

their proprietor, between the attributes and the object possessing them, of

this world. But such difference really exists in the case of conditioned souls.

Limbed though Krsna is, His every limb is the whole entity. He performs all

varieties of divine spiritual functions with every one of His limbs. Hence He

is an indivisible whole and a perfect transcendental entity. Both jiva-soul and

Krsna are transcendental. So they belong to the same category. But they differ

in this that the transcendental attributes exist in the jiva-soul in

infinitesimally small degrees, whereas in Krsna they are found in their fullest

perfection. Those attributes manifest themselves in their proper infinitesi-

mality only when the jiva-soul attains his unadulterated spiritual status. The

jiva-soul attains the nearest approach to the absolute identity only when the

spiritual force of ecstatic energy appears in him by the grace of Krsna. Still

Krsna remains the object of universal homage by reason of His possession of

certain unique attributes. These fourfold unrivaled attributes do not manifest

themselves in Narayana, the Lord of Vaikuntha or in primeval purusa-avataras,

or in the highest deities such as Siva, not to speak ofjivas.






advaitam acyutam anadim ananta-rupam


adyam purana-purusam nava-yauvanam ca


vedesu durlabham adurlabham atma-bhaktau


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




advaitam–without a second; acyutam–without decay; anadim–without a

beginning; ananta-rupam–whose form is endless, or who possesses unlimited

forms; adyam–the beginning; purana-purusam–the most ancient person; nava-

yauvanam–a blooming youth; ca–also; vedesu–through the Vedas;

durlabham–inaccessible; adurlabham–not difficult to obtain;

atma-bhaktau–through pure devotion of the soul; govindam–Govinda;

adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is inaccessible to the Vedas, but

obtainable by pure unalloyed devotion of the soul, who is without a second, who

is not subject to decay, is without a beginning, whose form is endless, who is

the beginning, and the eternal purusa; yet He is a person possessing the beauty

of blooming youth.






Advaita means “indivisible truth who is knowledge absolute.” Brahman, the

infinite, emanates from Him as His effulgence and God-immanent (Paramatma) as

His constituent; but nevertheless He remains one and indivisible. Acyuta means

that though myriads of avataras emanate from Him as subjective portions and

millions of jivas as separated spiritual particles, still He remains intact as

the undivided whole of fullest perfection. Though He indulges in exhibiting the

pastimes of births etc., still He is without a beginning. Though He disappears

after the pastimes of His appearance, still He is eternal. Though without

origin, yet He is with an origin in His pastime of appearance; and although

eternal in essence, He is still a person in the full bloom of youth. The sum

and substance of it is that though He possesses diverse and apparently mutually

contradictory dualities, still they are in universal harmonious concordance by

dint of His unthinkable potency. This is what is meant by cid-dharma

(transcendental nature) as distinguished from the material. His graceful

threefold-bending form with flute in hand, possesses eternal blooming youth and

is above all unwholesomeness that is to be found in limited time and space. In

the transcendental realm there is no past and future but only the unalloyed and

immutable present time. In the transcendental sphere there is no distinction

between the object and its qualities and no such identity as is found in the

limited mundane region. Hence those qualities that seem to be apparently con-

tradictory in the light of mundane conception limited by time and space, exist

in agreeable and dainty concordance in the spiritual realm. How can the jiva

realize such unprecedented existence? The limited intellectual function of the

jiva is always contaminated by the influence of time and space and is,

therefore, not in a position to shake off this limitedness. If the potency of

cognitive function does not extend to the realization of the transcendental,

what else can? In reply Brahma says that the transcendental Absolute is beyond

the reach of the Vedas. The Vedas originate in sound and sound originates in

the mundane ether. So the Vedas cannot present before us a direct view of the

transcendental world (Goloka). It is only when the Vedas are imbued with the

cit potency that they are enabled to deal with the transcendental. But Goloka

reveals itself to every jiva-soul when he is under the innuence of the

spiritual cognitive potency joined to the essence of ecstatic energy. The

ecstatic function of devotion is boundless and is surcharged with unalloyed

transcendental knowledge. That knowledge reveals goloka-tattva (the principle

of the highest transcendental) in unison with devotion, without asserting

itself separately but as a subsidiary to unalloyed devotion.






panthas tu koti-sata-vatsara-sampragamyo


vayor athapi manaso muni-pungavanam


so ‘py asti yat-prapada-simny avicintya-tattve


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




panthah–the path; tu–but; koti-sata–thousands of millions; vatsara–of

years; sampragamyah–extending over; vayoh– of wind; atha api–or; manasah–of

the mind; muni-pungavanam–of the foremost jnanis; sah–that (path); api–only;

asti–is; yat–of whom; prapada–of the toe; simni–to the tip;

avicintya-tattve–beyond material conception; govindam–Govinda;

adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, only the lip of the toe of whose lotus

feet is approached by the yogis who aspire after the transcendental and be take

themselves to pranayama by drilling the respiration; or by the jnanis who try

to find out the non differentiated Brahman by the process of elimination of the

mundane, extending over thousands of millions of years.






The attainment of the lotus feet of Govinda consists in the realization of

unalloyed devotion. The kaivalya (realized non alternative state) which is

attained by the astanga-yogis by practicing trance for thousands of millions of

years and the state of merging into the non differentiated impersonality of

Godhead beyond the range of limitation attained by non dualists after a similar

period passed in distinguishing between the spirituals and nonspiritual and

eliminating things of the limited sphere one after another by the formula “not

this, not that,” are simply the outs its of the lotus feet of Krsna and not the

lotus feet themselves. The long and short of the matter is this, kaivalya or

merging into the Brahman constitutes the line of demarcation between the world

of limitation and the transcendental world. For, unless we step beyond them, we

can have no taste of the variegatedness of the transcendental sphere. These

conditions are the simple absence of misery arising from mundane affinity but

are not real happiness or felicity. If the absence of misery be called a bit of

pleasure then also that bit is very small and of no consequence. It is not

sufficient to destroy the condition of materiality; but the real gain to the

jiva is his eternal existence in his self-realized state. This can be attained

only by the grace of unalloyed devotion which is essentially cut or

transcendental in character. For this end abstract and uninteresting mental

speculation is of no avail.






eko ‘py asau racayitum jagad-anda-kotim


yac-chaktir asti jagad-anda-caya yad-antah




govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




ekah–one; api–although; asau–He; racayitum–to create; jagat-anda–of

universes; kotim–millions; yat–whose; saktih–potency; asti–there is;

jagat-anda-cayah–all the universes; yat-antah–within whom;

anda-antara-stha–which are scattered throughout the universe;

paramu-anu-caya–the atoms; antara-stham–situated within; govindam–Govinda;

adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






He is an undifferentiated entity as there is no distinction between potency and

the possessor thereof. In His work of creation of millions of worlds, His

potency remains inseparable. All the universes exist in Him and He is present

in His fullness in every one of the atoms that are scattered throughout the

universe, at one and the tame time. Such is the primeval Lord whom I adore.






Krsna is the highest of all entities. In Him is an entity which is termed cit

(spiritual) which is distinct from the principle of limitation. By His

inconceivable power, He can at will create numberless universes. All the

mundane universes owe their origin to the transformation of His external

potency. Again His abode is beyond human conception; since all worlds, limited

and spiritual (cit) exist in Him and He resides simultaneously in His fullness

and entirety in all the atoms in all the worlds. All-pervasiveness is only a

localized aspect of the majesty of Krsna, the Lord of all. Though He is

all-pervasive yet in His existence everywhere in a medium shape consists His

spiritual Lordship beyond human conception. This argument favors the doctrine

of simultaneous inconceivable distinction and non distinction , and knocks down

the contaminating Mayavada and other allied doctrines.




yad-bhava-bhavita-dhiyo manujas tathaiva


samprapya rupa-mahimasana-yana-bhusah


suktair yam eva nigama-prathitai stuvanti


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yat–for whom; bhava–with devotion; bhavita–are imbued; dhiyah–whose hearts;

manujah–men; tatha eva–similarly; samprapya–having gained; rupa–beauty;

mahima–greatness; asana–thrones; yana–conveyances; bhusah–and ornaments;

suktaih–by Vedic hymns; yam–whom; eva– certainly; nigama–by the Vedas;

prathitaih–told; stuvanti–offer praise; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the

original person; tam–Him, aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I adore the same Govinda, the primeval Lord, in whose poise men, who are imbued

with devotion, sing the mantra- suktas told by the Vedas, by gaining their

appropriate beauty, greatness, thrones, conveyances and ornaments.






In discussing rasa we meet with five kinds of devotion or service. Santa or

unattached, dasya or pertaining to reverential willing service, sakhya or

friendship, vatsalya or parental love and srngara or juvenile love.


The devotees surcharged with the ideas of their respective service, serve Krsna

eternally and ultimately reach the goal of their respective ideals. They attain

the real nature of their self befitting their respective rasas, their glories,

conveyances, seats befitting their sacred service, and transcendental qualities

of ornaments enhancing the beauty of their real nature. Those who are advocates

of santa-rasa attain the region of Brahma-Paramatma, the seat of eternal peace;

those of dasya-rasa get to Vaikuntha, the spiritual majestic abode of Sri

Narayana; those of sakhya, vatsalya and madhura-rasa (juvenile love) attain

Goloka-dhama, Krsna’s abode, above Vaikuntha. They worship Krsna by the suktas

depicted in the Vedas with the ingredients and objects befitting their

respective rasas, in those regions. The Vedas, under the influence of the

spiritual potency in certain passages speak of the pastimes of the Supreme

Lord. The liberated Souls chant the name, qualities and pastimes of the Supreme

Lord, under the guidance of the same spiritual potency.








tabhir ya eva nija-rupataya- kalabhih


goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhuto


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




ananda–bliss; cit–and knowledge; maya–consisting of; rasa–mellows;

prati–every second; bhavitabh,h–who are engrossed with; tabhih–with those;

yah–who; eva–certainly; nija-rupataya–with His own form; kalabhih–who are

parts of portions of His pleasure potency; goloke–in Goloka Vrndavana;

eva–certainly; nivasati–resides; akhila-atma–as the soul of all; bhutah–who

exists; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original personality; tam–Him;

aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, residing in His own realm, Goloka, with

Radha, resembling His own spiritual figure, the embodiment of the ecstatic

potency possessed of the sixty-four artistic activities, in the company of Her

confidantes [sakhis], embodiments of the extensions of Her bodily form,

permeated and vitalized by His ever-blissful spiritual rasa.






Although the Lord Absolute and His potency are one and the self-same existence,

still They exist eternally as separate entities, as Radha and Krsna. In both

the ecstatic energy and the transcendental Lord Krsnaa there exists

srngara-rasa (amorous love) whose quality is inconceivable. The vibhava

(extension) of that rasa (mellow quality) is twofold, viz., alambana (prop) and

uddipana (stimulation). Of these alambana is twofold, viz., asraya (supported)

and visaya (supporter). Asraya signifies Radhika Herself and the extensions of

Her own form and visaya means Krsna Himself. Krsna is Govinda, Lord of Goloka.

The gopis are the facsimile asraya of that rasa. With them Krsna indulges in

eternal pastimes in Goloka. Nija-rupataya means “with the attributes manifested

from the ecstatic energy.” The sixty-four activities in fine arts and crafts

are the following:


(1) gita–art of singing. (2) vadya–art of praying on musical instruments. (3)

nrtya–art of dancing. (4) natya–art of theatricals . (5) alekhya–art of

painting. (6) visesakacchedya–art of painting the face and body with colored

unguents and cosmetics. (7) tandula-kusuma-bali-vikara–art of preparing of-

ferings from rice and flowers. (8) puspastarana–art of making a covering of

flowers for a bed. (9) dasana-vasananga-raga– art of applying preparations for

cleansing the teeth, cloths and painting the body. (10) mani-bhumika-karma–

art of making the groundwork of jewels. (11) sayya-racana–art of covering the

bed. (12) udaka-vadya–art of playing on music in water. ( 13) udaka-ghata–art

of splashing with water. (14) citra-yoga–art of practically applying an

admixture of colors. (15) malya-grathana-vikalpa–art of designing a

preparation of wreaths. (16) sekharapida-yojana–art of practically setting the

coronet on the head. (17) nepathya-yoga–art of practically dressing in the

tiring room. (18) karnapatra-bhanga–art of decorating the tragus of the ear.

(19) sugandha-yukti–art of practical application of aromatics. (20)

bhusana-yojana–art of applying or setting ornaments. (21) aindra-jala–art of

juggler. (22) kaucumara–a kind of art. (23) hasta-laghava–art of sleight of

hand. (24) citra-sakapupa-bhaksya-vikara-kriya– art of preparing varieties of

salad, bread, cake and delicious food. (25) panaka-rasa-rgasava-yojana–art of

practically preparing palatable drinks and tinging draughts with red color.

(26) suci-vaya-karma–art of needle works and weaving. (27) sutra-krida–art of

playing with thread. (28) vina-damuraka-vadya–art of playing on lute and small

x-shaped drum. (29) prahelika—art of making and solving riddles. (29-a)

praytimala—art of coping or reciting verse for verse as a trial for memory or

skill. (30) durvacaka-yoga–art of practicing language difficult to be answered

by others. (31) pustaka-vacana–art of reciting books. (32) nathikakhyayika-

darsana–art of enacting short plays and anecdotes. (33) kavya-samasya-purana–

art of solving enigmatic verses. (34) pattika-vetra-bana-vikalpa–art of

designing preparation of shield, cane and arrows. (35) tarku-karma–art of

spinning by spindle. (36) taksana–art of carpentry. (37) vastu-vidya– art of

engineering. (38) raupya-ratna-pariksa–art of testing silver and jewels. (39)

dhatu-vada–art of metallurgy. (40) mani-raga-jnana–art of tinging jewels.(41)

akara-jnana– art of mineralogy. (42) vrksayur-veda-yoga–art of practicing

medicine or medical treatment, by herbs.(43) mesa-kukkuta-lavaka-yuddha-vidhi–

art of knowing the mode of fighting of lambs, cocks and birds. (44)

suka-sarika-prapalana (pralapana)?–art of maintaining or knowing conversation

between male and female cockatoos. (45) utsadana–art of healing or cleaning a

person with perfumes. (46) kesa-marjana-kausala–art of combing hair. (47)

aksara-mustika-kathana– art of talking with letters and fingers. (48)

mlecchita-kutarka-vikalpa–art of fabricating barbarous or foreign sophistry.

(49) desa-bhasa-jnana–art of knowing provincial dialects. (50) puspa-sakatika-

nirmiti-jnana–art of knowing prediction by heavenly voice or knowing

preparation of toy carts by flowers. (51) yantra-matrka–art of mechanics. (52)

dharana-matrka—art of the use of amulets. (53) samvacya–art of conversation.

(54) manasi kavya-kriya–art of composing verse mentally. (55) kriya-vikalpa–

art of designing a literary work or a medical remedy. (56) chalitaka-yoga–art

of practicing as a builder of shrines called after him. (57) abhidhana-kosa-

cchando-jnana–art of the use of lexicography and meters. (58)vastra-gopana–

art of concealment of cloths. (59) dyuta-visesa–art of knowing specific

gambling. (60) akarsa-krida– art of playing with dice or magnet. (61)

balaka-kridanaka–art of using children’s toys. (62) vainayiki vidya–art of

enforcing discipline. (63) vaijayiki vidya–art of gaining victory. (64)

vaitaliki vidya–art of awakening master with music at dawn.


All these arts manifesting their own eternal forms are ever visible in the

region of Goloka as the ingredients of rasa; and, in the mundane sphere, they

have been unstintedly exhibited in he pastimes of Vraja by the spiritual (cit)

potency, Yogamaya. So Sri Rupa says, sadanantaih … santi tah, ie., Krsna is

ever manifest in His beauty with His infinite pastimes in Goloka. Sometimes the

variant manifestation of those pastimes becomes visible on the mundane plane.

Sri Hari, the Supreme Lord, also manifests His pastimes of birth, etc.,

accompanied by all His paraphernalia. The divine sportive potency rolls the

hearts of His paraphernalia with appropriate spiritual sentiments in conformity

with the will of Krsna. Those pastimes that manifest themselves on the mundane

plane, are His visible pastimes. All those very pastimes exist in their

nonvisible form in Goloka beyond the ken of mundane knowledge. In His visible

pastimes Krsna sojourns in Gokula, Mathura and Dvaraka. Those pastimes that are

nonvisible in those three places are visible in their spiritual sites of



From the conclusions just stated it is clear that there is no distinction

between the visible and nonvisible pastimes. The apostle Jiva Gosvami in his

commentary on this sloka as well as in the gloss of Ujjvala-nilamani and in

Krsna-sandarhha remarks that “the visible pastimes of Krsna are the creation of

His cit (spiritual) potency. Being in conjunction with the reference to mundane

function they exhibit certain features which seem to be true by the influence

of the limiting potency (Maya); but these cannot exist in the transcendental

reality. The destruction of demons, illicit paramour ship, birth, etc., are

examples of this peculiarity. The gopis are the extensions of the ecstatic

energy of Krsna, and so are exceptionably His own. How can there be illicit

connection in their case? The illicit mistress-ship of the gopis found in His

visible pastime, is but the mundane reflection of the transcendental reality.”

The hidden meaning underlying the words of Sri Jiva Gosvami, when it is made

explicit will leave no doubt in the minds of the readers. Sri Jiva Gosvami is

our preacher of transcendental truth. So he is always under the influence of

Sri Rupa and Sanatana. Moreover in the pastimes of Krsna Sri Jiva is one of the

manjaris. So he is conversant with all transcendental realities.


There are some who, being unable to understand the drift of his statements,

give meanings of their own invention and indulge in useless controversies. Sri

Rupa and Sanatana say that there is no real and essential distinction between

the lilas visible and nonvisible, the only distinction lies in this that one is

manifest in the mundane sphere whereas the other is not so. In the super

mundane manifestation there is absolute purity in the seer and the seen. A

particularly fortunate person when he is favored by Krsna, can shake off

worldly shackles and connections, enter the transcendental region after

attaining the realized taste of the varieties of rasa that is available during

the period of novitiate. Only such a person can have a view and taste of the

perfect and absolutely pure lila of Goloka. Such receptive natures are rarely

to be found. He, who exists in the mundane sphere, can also realize the taste

of cid-rasa by the grace of Krsna by being enabled to attain the realized state

of service. Such a person can have a view of the pastimes of Goloka manifested

in the mundane lila of Gokula. There is certainly a difference between these

two classes of eligible seekers of the truth. Until one attains the perfectly

transcendental stage he must be hampered by his lingering limitations, in his

vision of the pastimes of Goloka. Again, the vision of the transcendental

reality varies according to the degree of self realization. The vision of

Goloka must also vary accordingly.


It is only those fettered souls who are excessively addicted to worldliness

that are devoid of the devotional eye. Of them some are enmeshed by the

variegatedness of the deluding energy while others aspire after

self-annihilation under the influence of centrifugal knowledge. Though they

might have a view of the mundanely manifested pastimes of the Supreme Lord,

they can have only a material conception of those visible pastimes, this

conception being devoid of transcendental reality. Hence the realization of

Goloka appears in proportion to eligibility due to the degree of one’s

self-realization. The underlying principle is this, that, though Gokula is as

holy and free from dross as Goloka, still it is manifested on the mundane plane

by the influence of the cit potency, Yogamaya. In visible and nonvisible

matters of transcendental regions there is no impurity, contamination and

imperfection inherent in the world of limitation; only there is some difference

in the matter of realization in proportion to the self-realization of the

seekers after the Absolute. Impurity, unwholesomeness, foreign elements, illu-

sion, nescience, unholiness. utter inadequacy, insignificance, grossness–these

appertain to the eye, intellect, mind and ego stultified by the material nature

of conditioned souls; they have nothing to do with the essential nature of

transcendence. The more one is free from these blots the more is one capable of

realizing the unqualified Absolute. The truth who has been revealed by the

scriptures, is free from dross. But the realizations of the seekers of the

knowledge of these realities, are with or without flaw in accordance with the

degree of their individual realization.


Those sixty-four arts that have been enumerated above, do in reality exist

unstintedly only in Goloka. Unwholesomeness, insignificance, grossness are

found in those arts in accordance with the degree of self-realization on the

part of aspirants after the knowledge of the Absolute. According to Srila Rupa

and Srila Sanatana all those pastimes, that have been visibly in Gokula, exist

in all purity and free from all tinge of limitation in Goloka. So

transcendental autocratic paramourship also exists in Goloka in inconceivable

purity judged by the same standard and reasoning. All manifestation by the cit

potency, Yogamaya, are pure. So, as the above paramourship is the creation of

Yogamaya, it is necessarily free from all contamination, and appertains to the

absolute reality.


Let us pause to consider what the absolute reality is in Himself. Sri Rupa

Gosvami says, purvokta- … saratah. In regard to these slokas Sripada Jiva

Gosvami after mature deliberation has established the transcendental paramour-

ship as vibhrama-vilasa, something seemingly different from what it appears to

be; such are the pastimes of birth, etc., accomplished by Yogamaya. By the

explanation tathapi … vraja-vanitanam, Srila Jiva Gosvami has expressed his

profound implication. Joyous pastimes by the medium of seeming error,

vibhrama-vilasa, as the contrivance of Yogamaya, has also been admitted in the

concluding statements of Rupa and Sanatana. Still, since Sripada Jiva Gosvami

has established the identity of Goloka with Gokula, it must be admitted that

there is transcendental reality underlying all the pastimes of Gokula. A

husband is one who binds oneself in wedlock with a girl, while a paramour is

one who, in order to win another’s wife’s love by means of love, crosses the

conventions of morality, by the impulse of the sentiment that regards her love

as the be-all and end-all of existence. In Goloka there is no such function at

all as what of the nuptial relationship. Hence there is no husband hood char-

acterized by such connection. On the other hand since the gopis, who are

self-supported real entities are not tied to anybody else in wedlock, they

cannot also have the state of concubinage . There can also be no separate

entities in the forms of svakiya (conjugal) and parakiya (adulterous) states.

In the visible pastimes on the mundane plane the function in the form of the

nuptial relationship is found to exist. Krsna is beyond the scope of that

function. Hence the said function of the circle of all-love is contrived by

Yogamaya. Krsna tastes the transcendental rasa akin to paramourship by

overstepping that function. This pastime of going beyond the pale of the

apparent moral function manifested by Yoyamaya, is, however, also observable

only on the mundane plane by the eye that is enwrapped by the mundane covering;

but there is really no such levity in the pastimes of Krsna. The rasa of

paramourship is certainly the extracted essence of all the rasas. If it be said

that it does not exist in Goloka, it would be highly deprecatory to Goloka. It

is not the fact that there is no supremely wholesome tasting of rasa in the

supremely excellent realm of Goloka. Krsna the fountainhead of all avataras,

tastes the same in a distinct form in Goloka and in another distinct form in

Gokula. Therefore, in spite of the seeming appearance, to the mundane eye, of

out stepping the bounds of the legitimate function by the form of paramour-

ship, there must be present the truth of it in some form even in Goloka.

Atmaramo ‘py ariramat, atmany avaruddha-sauratah, reme vraja-sundaribhir

yatharbhakah pratibimba-vibhramah and other texts of the scriptures go to show

that self delightedness is the essential dislinctive quality of Krsna Himself.

Krsna in His majestic cit realm causes the manifestation of His own cit potency

as Laksmi and enjoys her as His own wedded consort. As this feeling of wedded

consorthood preponderates there, rasa expands in a wholesome form only up to

the state of servanthood (dasya-rasa). But in Goloka He divides up His cit

potency into thousands of goals and eternally engages in amorous pastimes with

them by forgetting the sentiments of ownership. By the sentiments of ownership

there cannot be the extreme inaccessibility of the rasa. So the gopis have

naturally, from eternity, the innate sentiment of being others’ wedded wives.

Krsna too in response to that sentiment, by assuming the reciprocal sentiment

of paramourship, performs the rasa and the other amorous pastimes with the aid

of the flute, His favorite cher ami. Goloka is the transcendental seat of

eternally self-realized rasa, beyond limited conception. Hence in Goloka there

is realization of the sentimental assumption of the rasa of paramourship.


Again such is the nature of the principle of the majesty that in the realm of

Vaikuntha there is no rasa or parental affection towards the source of all

avataras. But in Goloka, the seat of all superexcellent deliciousness, there is

no more than the original sentimental egoistic assumption of the same rasa.

There Nanda and Yasoda are visibly present, but there is no occurrence of

birth. For want of the occurrence of birth the assumed egoistic sentiment of

parental affection of Nanda and Yasoda has no foundation in the actual

existence of such entities as father and mother, but it is of the nature of

sentimental assumption on their parts, cf. jayati jana-nivaso devaki-janma-

vadah, etc. For the purpose of the realization of the rasa the assumed egoistic

sentiment is, however, eternal. In the rasa of amorous love if the

corresponding egoistic sentiments of concubinage and paramourship be mere

eternal assumptions there is nothing to blame in them and it also does not go

against the scriptures. When those transcendental entities of Goloka becomes

manifest in Vraja then those two egoistic sentiments become somewhat more

palpable to the mundane view in the phenomenal world and there comes to be this

much difference only. In the rasa of parental affection the sentiments of Nanda

and Yasoda that they are parents becomes manifest in the more tangible form in

the pastimes of birth etc., and in the amorous rasa the corresponding

sentiments of concubinage in the respective gopis become manifest in the forms

of their marriages with Abhimanyu, Govardhana, etc. In reality there is no such

separate entity as husbandhood of the gopis either in Goloka or in Gokula.

Hence the sastras declare that there is no sexual union of the gopis with their

husbands. It is also for the same reason that the authorized teacher of the

principle of rasa, Sri Rupa, writes that in the transcendental amorous rasa the

hero is of two different types, viz., the wedded husband and the paramour–

patis copapatis ceti prabhedav iha visrutav iti. Sri Jiva, in his commentary by

his words patih pura-vanitanam dvitiyo vraja- vanitanam, acknowledges the

eternal paramourship of Krsna in Goloka and Gokula and the husbandhood of Krsna

in Vaikuntha and Dvaraka etc. In the Lord of Goloka and the Lord of Gokula the

character of paramourship is found in its complete form. Krsna’s deliberate

overstepping of His own quality of self-delightedness is caused by the desire

of union with another’s wedded wife. The state of being another’s wedded wife

is nothing but the corresponding assumed sentiment on the part of the gopis. In

reality they have no husbands with independent and separate existence; still

their very egoistic sentiment makes them have the nature of the wedded wives of

others. So all the characteristics, viz., that “desire makes the paramour

overstep the bounds of duty,” etc., are eternally present in the seat of

all-deliciousness. In Vraja that very thing reveals itself, to an extent, in a

form more tangible to persons with mundane eyes.


So in Goloka there is inconceivable distinction and nondistinction between the

rasas analogous to mundane concubine ship and wifehood. It may be said with

equal truth that there is no distinction in Goloka between the two as also that

there is such distinction. The essence of paramourship is the cessation of

ownership and the abeyance of ownership is the enjoyment of His own cit potency

in the shape of abeyance of paramourship or enjoyment without the sanction of

wedlock. The conjunction of the two exists there as one rasa accommodating both

varieties. In Gokula it is really the same with the difference that it produces

a different impression on observers belonging to the mundane plane. In Govinda,

the hero of Goloka, there exist both husbandhood and paramourship above all

piety and impiety and free from all grossness. Such is also the case with the

hero of Gokula although there is a distinction in realization caused by

Yogamaya. If it be urged that what is manifested by Yogamaya is the highest

truth being the creation of the cit potency and that, therefore, the impres-

sion of paramourship is also really true, the reply is that there may exist an

impression of analogous sentimental egoism in the tasting of rasa free from any

offense because it is not without a basis in truth. But the unwholesome

impression that is produced in the mundane judgment is offensive and as such

cannot exist in the pure cit realm. In fact Sripada Jiva Gosvami has come to

the true conclusion, and at the same time the finding of the opposing party is

also inconceivably true. It is the vain empirical wranglings about wedded

wifehood and concubinage which is false and full of specious verbosity. He who

goes through the commentaries of Sripada Jiva Gosvami and those of the opposing

party with an impartial judgement cannot maintain his attitude of protest

engendered by any real doubt. What the unallayed devotee of the Supreme Lord

says is all true and is independent of any consideration of unwholesome pros

and cons. There is, however, the element of mystery in their verbal

controversies. Those, whose judgment is made of mundane stuff. being unable to

enter into the spirit of the all-loving controversies among pure devotees, due

to their own want of unalloyed devotion, are apt to impute to the devotees

their own defects of partisanship and opposing views. Commenting on the sloka

of Rasa-pancadhyayi, gopinam tat-patinam ca, etc., what Sripada Sanatana

Gosvami has stated conclusively in his Vaisnava-tosani has been accepted with

reverence by the true devotee Sripada Visvanatha Cakravarti without any



Whenever any dispute arises regarding the pure cognitive pastimes, such as

Goloka, tc., we would do well to remember the precious advice from the holy

lips of Sriman Mahaprabhu and His associates. the Gosvamis, viz., that the

Truth Absolute is ever characterized by spiritual variegatedness that

transcends the variegatedness of mundane phenomena; but He is never feature-

less. The divine rasa is lovely with the variegatedness of the fourfold

distinction of vibhava, anubhava, sattvika and vyabhicari and the rasa is ever

present in Goloka and Vaikuntha. The rasa of Goloka manifests as vraja-rasa on

the mundane plane for the benefit of the devotees by the power of Yogamaya.

Whatever is observable in Gokula-rasa should be visible in Goloka-rasa, in a

clearly explicit form. Hence the distinction of paramourship and concubinage,

the variegatedness of the respective rasas of all different persons, the soil,

water, river, hill, portico, bower, cows, etc.. all the features of Gokula

exist in Goloka, disposed in an appropriate manner. There is only this

peculiarity that the mundane conceptions of human beings possessed of material

judgment, regarding those transcendental entities, do not exist there. The

conception of Goloka manifests itself differently in proportion to the degree

of realization of the various pastimes of Vraja and it is very difficult to lay

down any definite criterion as to which portions are mundane and which are

uncontaminated. The more the eye of devotion is tinged with the salve of love,

the more will the transcendental concept gradually manifest itself. So there is

no need of further hypothetical speculation which does not improve one’s

spiritual appreciation, as the substantive knowledge of Goloka is an

inconceivable entity. To try to pursue the inconceivable by the conceptual

process is like pounding the empty husk of grain, which is sure to have a

fruitless ending. It is, therefore, one’s bounden duty by refraining from the

endeavor to know, to try to gain the experience of the transcendental by the

practice of pure devotion. Any course, the adoption of which tends to produce

the impression of featurelessness, must be shunned by all means. Unalloyed

parakiya-rasa free from all mundane conception is a most rare attainment. It is

this which has been described in the narrative of the pastimes of Gokula. Those

devotees, who follow the dictate of their pure spontaneous love should base

their devotional endeavors on that narrative. They will attain to the more

wholesome fundamental principle on reaching the stage of realization. The

devotional activities characterized by illicit amour, as practiced by

worldly-minded conditioned souls, are forbidden mundane impiety. The heart of

our apostle Sripada Jiva Gosvami was very much moved by such practices and

induced him to give us his conclusive statements on the subject. It is the duty

of a pure Vaisnava to accept the real spirit of his statements. It is a great

offense to disrespect the acarya and to seek to establish a different doctrine

in opposition to him.








santah sadaiva hrdayesu vilokayanti


yam syamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupam


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




prema–of love; anjana–with the salve; churita–tinged; bhakti–of devotion;

vilocanena–with the eye: santah–the pure devotees; sada–always;eva–indeed;

hrdayesu–in their hearts; vilokayanti–see; yam–whom; syama–dark blue;

sundaram–beautiful; acintya–inconceivable; guna–with attributes;

svarupam–whose nature is endowed; govindam– Govinda; adi-purusam–the

original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is Syamasundara, Krsna Himself with

inconceivable innumerable attributes, whom the pure devotees see in their heart

of hearts with the eye of devotion tinged with the salve of love.






The Syamasundara form of Krsna is His inconceivable simultaneous personal and

impersonal self-contradictory form. True devotees see the form in their

purified hearts under the influence of devotional trance. The form Syama is not

the blue color visible in the mundane world but is the transcendental

variegated color affording eternal bliss, and is not visible to the mortal eye.

On a consideration of the trance of Vyasadeva as in the sloka, bhakti-yogena

manasi etc., it will be clear that the form of Sri Krsna is the full

Personality of Godhead and can only be visible in the heart of a true devotee,

which is the only true seat in the state of trance under the influence of

devotion. When Krsna manifested Himself in Vraja, both the devotees and non-

devotees saw Him with this very eye; but only the devotees cherished Him,

eternally present in Vraja, as the priceless jewel of their heart. Nowadays

also the devotees see Him in Vraja in their hearts, saturated with devotion

although they do not see Him with their eyes. The eye of devotion is nothing

but the eye of the pure unalloyed spiritual self of the Jiva. The form of

Krsna is visible to that eye in proportion to its purification by the practice

of devotion. When the devotion of the neophyte reaches the stage of

bhava-bhakti the pure eye of that devotee is tinged with the salve of love by

the grace of Krsna, which enables him to see Krsna face to face. The phrase

“in their hearts” means Krsna is visible in proportion as their hearts are

purified by the practice of devotion. The sum and substance of this sloka is

that the form of Krsna, who is Syamasundara, Natavara (Best Dancer),

Muralidhara (Holder of the Flutes) and Tribhanga (Triple-bending), is not a

mental concoction but is transcendental, and is visible with the eye of the

soul of the devotee under trance.






ramadi-murtisu kala-niyamena tisthan


nanavataram akarod bhuvanesu kintu


krsnah svayam samabhavat paramah puman yo


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




rama-adi–the incarnation of Lord Rama, etc.; murtisu–in different forms;

kala-niyamena–by the order of plenary portions; tisthhan–existing;

nana–various; avataram–incarnations; akarot–executed; bhuvanesu–within the

worlds; kintu– but; krsnah–Lord Krsna; svayam–personally; samabhavat–

appeared; paramah–the supreme; puman–person; yah– who; govindam–Govinda;

adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who manifested Himself personally as

Krsna and the different avataras in the world in the forms of Rama, Nrsimha,

Vamana, etc., as His subjective portions.






His subjective portions as the avataras, viz., Rama, etc., appear from

Vaikuntha and His own form Krsna manifests Himself with Vraja in this world,

from Goloka. The underlying sense is that Krsna Caitanya, identical with Krsna

Himself, also brings about by His appearance the direct manifestation of

Godhead Himself.






yasya prabha prabhavato jagad-anda-koti-


kotisv asesa-vasudhadi vibhuti-bhinnam


tad brahma niskalam anantam asesa-bhutam


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yasya–of whom; prabha–the effulgence; prabhavatah–of one who excels in

power; jagat-anda–of universes; koti-kotisu–in millions and millions;

asesa–unlimited; vasudha-adi–with planets and other manifestations; vibhuti–

with opulences; bhinnam–becoming variegated; tat–that; brahma–Brahman;

niskalam–without parts; anantam– unlimited; asesa-bhutam–being complete;

govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I;







I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the source of the

nondifferentiated Brahman mentioned in the Upanisads, being differentiated from

the infinity of glories of the mundane universe appears as the indivisible,

infinite, limitless, truth.






The mundane universe created by Maya is one of the infinite external

manifestations accommodating space, time and gross things. The impersonal

aspect of Godhead, the nondifferentiated Brahman, is far above this principle

of mundane creation. But even the non differentiated Brahman is only the

external effulgence emanating from the boundary wall of the transcendental

realm of Vaikuntha displaying the triquadrantal glory of Govinda. The non-

differentiated Brahman is indivisible, hence is also one without a second, and

is the infinite, and residual entity.






maya hi yasya jagad-anda-satani sute




sattvavalambi-para-sattvam visuddha-sattvam


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




maya–the external potency; hi–indeed; yasya–of whom; jagat-anda–of

universes; satani–hundreds; sute–brings forth; trai-gunya–embodying the

threefold mundane qualities; tat–of that; visaya–the subject matter;

veda–the Vedic knowledge; vitayamana–diffusing; sattva-avalambi–the support

of all existence; para-sattvam–the ultinnate entity; visuddha-sattvam–the

absolute substantive principle; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original

person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is the absolute substantive principle

being the ultimate entity in the form of the support of all existence whose

external potency embodies the threefold mundane qualities, viz., sattva, rajas

and tamas and diffuses the Vedic knowledge regarding the mundane world.






The active mundane quality of rajas brings forth or generates all mundane

entities. The quality of sattva (mundane manifesive principle) in conjunction

with rajas stands for the maintenance of the existence of entities that are so

produced, and the quality of tamas represents the principle of destruction. The

substantive principle, which is mixed with the threefold mundane qualities, is

mundane, while the unmixed substance is transcendental. The quality of eternal

existence is the principle of absolute entity. The person whose proper form

abides in that essence, is alone unalloyed entity, non mundane, supermundane

and free from all mundane quality. He is cognitive bliss. It is the deluding

energy who has elaborated the regulative knowledge (Vedas) bearing on the

threefo]d mundane quality.






ananda-cinmaya-rasatmataya manahsu


yah praninam pratiphalan smaratam upetya


lilayitena bhuvanani jayaty ajasram


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




ananda–blissful; cit-maya–cognitive; rasa–of rasa; atmataya–due to being

the entity; manahsu–in the minds; yah–He who; praninam–of living entities;

pratiphalan– being reflected; smaratam upetya–recollecting; lilayitena–by

pastimes; bhuvanani–the mundane world; jayati– triumphantly dominates;

ajasram–ever; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him;

aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose glory ever triumphantly dominates

the mundane world by the activity of His own pastimes, being resected in the

mind of recollecting souls as the transcendental entity of ever-blissful

cognitive rasa.






Those who constantly recollect in accordance with spiritual instructions the

name, figure, attributes and pastimes of the form of Krsna appearing in the

amorous rasa whose loveliness vanquishes the god of mundane love, conqueror of

all mundane hearts, are alone meditators of Krsna. Krsna, who is full of

pastimes, always manifests Himself with His realm only in the pure receptive

cognition of such persons. The pastimes of that manifested divine realm

triumphantly dominates in every way all the majesty and beauty of the mundane







goloka-namni nija-dhamni tale ca tasya


devi mahesa-hari-dhamasu tesu tesu


te teo prabhava-nicaya vihitas ca yena


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




goloka-namni–in the planet known as Goloka Vrndavana; nija-dhamni–the

personal abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tale–in the part

underneath; ca–also; tasya–of that; devi– of the goddess Durga; mahesa–of

Lord Siva; hari–of Narayana; dhamasu–in the planets; tesu tesu–in each of

them; te te–those respective; prabhava-nicayah– opulences; vihitah–

established; ca–also; yena–by whom; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the

original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






Lowest of all is located Devi-dhama [mundane world], next above it is

Mahesa-dhama [abode of Mahesa]; above Mahesa-dhama is placed Hari-dhama [abode

of Hari] and above them all is located Krsna’s own realm named Goloka. I adore

the primeval Lord Govinda, who has allotted their respective authorities to the

rulers of those graded realms.






The realm of Goloka stands highest above all others. Brahma looking up to the

higher position of Goloka is speaking of the other realms from the point of

view of his own realm: the first in order is this mundane world called

Devi-dhama consisting of the fourteen worlds, viz., Satyaloka, etc.; next above

Devi-dhama is located Siva-dhama one portion of which, called Mahakala-dhama,

is enveloped in darkness; interpenetrating this portion of Siva-dhama there

shines the Sadasivaloka, full of great light. Above the same appears Hari-dhama

or the transcendental Vaikunthaloka. The potency of Devi-dhama, in the form of

the extension of Maya, and that of Sivaloka, consisting of time, space and

matter, are the potency of the separated particles pervaded by the penumbral

reflection of the subjective portion of the Divinity. But Hari-dhama is ever

resplendent with transcendental majesty and the great splendor of all-sweetness

predominates over all other majesties in Goloka. The Supreme Lord Govinda by

his own direct and indirect power has constituted those respective potencies of

those realms.








srsti-sthiti-pralaya-sadhana-saktir eka


chayeva yasya bhuvanani bibharti durga


icchanurupam api yasya ca cestate sa


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




srsti–creation; sthiti–preservation; pralaya–anddestruction; sadhana–the

agency;saktih–potency; eka–one; chaya–the shadow; iva–like; yasya–of whom;

bhuvanani–the mundane world; bibharti–maintains; durga–Durga; iccha–the

will; anurupam–in accordance with; api–certainly; yasya–of whom; ca–and;

cestate–conducts herself; sa–she; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the

original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship






The external potency Maya who is of the nature of the shadow of the cit

potency, is worshiped by all people as Durga, the creating, preserving and

destroying agency of this mundane world. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda in

accordance with whose will Durga conducts herself.






(The aforesaid presiding deity of Devi-dhama is being described.) The world,

in which Brahma takeshis stand and hymns the Lord of Goloka, isDevi-dhama

consisting of the fourtenn worlds and Durga is its presiding deity. She is

tenarmed, representing the tenfold fruitive acitivites.She rides on the lion,

representing her heroic prowess. She trampels down Mahisasura, representing

the subduer of vices. She is the mother of two sons, Karttikeya and Ganesa,

representing beauty and success. She is placed between Laksmi andSarasvati,

representing mundane opulence and mundane knowledge. She is armed with the

twenty weapons, representing the various pious activities enjoined by the

Vedas for suppression of vices. She holds the snake, representing the beauty

of destructive time. Such is Durga possessing all these manifold forms. Durga

is possessed of Durga, which means a prison house. When jivas begotten of the

marginal potency (tatastha sakti) forget the service of Krsna they are

confined in the mundane prison house, the citadel of Durga. The wheel of karma

is the instrument of punishment at this place. The work of purifying these

penalized jivas is the duty developed upon Durga. She is incessantly engaged

in discharging the same by the will of Govinda. When, luckily, the

forgetfulness of Govinda on the part of imprisoned jivas is remarked by them

by coming in contact with self-realized souls and their natural aptitude for

the loving service of Krsna is aroused, Durga herself then becomes the agency

of their deliverance by the will of Govinda. So it behooves everybody to

obtain the guileless grace of Durga, themistress of the prison house, by

propritiating her with the selfless service of Krsna. The boons received from

Durga in the shape of wealth, property, recoveryfrom illness, of wife and

sons, should be realized as thedeluding kindness of Durga. The mundane

physical jubilations of dasa-maha-vidya, the ten goddesses or forms of Durga,

are elaborated for the delusion of the fettered souls of this world. Jiva is a

spiritual atomic part of Krsna. When he forgets his service of Krsna he is at

once deflected by the attracting power of Maya in this world, who throws him

into the whirlpool of mundane fruitive activity (karma) by confining him in a

gross body constituted by the five material elements, their five attributes and

eleven senses, resembling the garb of a prisoner. In this whirlpool jiva has

experience of happiness and miseries, heaven and hell. Besides this, there is a

subtle body, consisting of the mind, intelligence and ego, inside the gross

body. By means of the subtle body, the Jiva forsakes one gross body and takes

recourse to another. The jiva cannot get rid of the subtle body, full of

nescience and evil desires, unless and until he is liberated. On getting rid of

the subtle body he bathes in the Viraja and goes up to Hari-dhama. Such are the

duties performed by Durga in accordance with the will of Govinda. In the

Bhagavata sloka, vilajyamanaya … durdhiyah–the relationship between Durga

and the conditioned souls has been described.


Durga, worshiped by the people of this mundane world, is the Durga described

above. But the spiritual Durga, mentioned in the mantra which is the outer

covering of the spiritual realm of the Supreme Lord, is the eternal maidservant

of Krsna and is, therefore, the transcendental reality whose shadow, the Durga

of this world, functions in this mundane world as her maidservant. (Vide the

purport of sloka 3.)








ksiram yatha dadhi vikara-visesa-yogat


sanjayate na hi tatah prthag asti hetoh


yah sambhutam api tatha samupaiti karyad


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




ksiram–milk; yatha–as; dadhi–yogurt; vikara-visesa–of a special

transformation; yogat–by the application; sanjayate– is transformed into;

na–not; hi–indeed; tatah–from the milk; prthak–separated; asti–is;

hetoh–which is the cause; yah–who; sambhutam–the nature of Lord Siva; api–

also; tatha–thus; samupaiti–accepts; karyat–for the matter of some

particular business; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person;

tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






Just as milk is transformed into curd by the action of acids, but yet the

effect curd is neither same as, nor different from, its cause, viz., milk, so I

adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whom the state of Sambhu is a transformation

for the performance of the work of destruction.






(The real nature of Sambhu, the presiding deity of Mahesa-dhama, is described.)

Sambhu is not a second Godhead other than Krsna. Those, who entertain such

discriminating sentiment, commit a great offense against the Supreme Lord. The

supremacy of Sambhu is subservient to that of Govinda; hence they are not

really different from each other. The nondistinction is established by the fact

that just as milk treated with acid turns into curd so Godhead becomes a

subservient when He Himself attains a distinct personality by the addition of a

particular element of adulteration. This personality has no independent

initiative. The sail adulterating principle is constituted of a combination of

the stupefying quality of the deluding energy, the quality of nonplenitude of

the marginal potency and a slight degree of the ecstatic-cum-cognitive

principle of the plenary spiritual potency. This specifically adulterated

reflection of the principle of the subjective portion of the Divinity is

Sadasiva, in the form of the effulgent masculine-symbol-god Sambhu from whom

Rudradeva is manifested. In the work of mundane creation as the material cause,

in the work of preservation by the destruction of sundry asuras and in the work

of destruction to conduct the whole operation, Govinda manifests Himself as

guna-avatara in the form of Sambhu who is the separated portion of Govinda

imbued with the principle of His subjective plenary portion. The personality of

the destructive principle in the form of time has been identified with what of

Sambhu by scriptural evidences that have been adduced in the commentary. The

purport of the Bhagavata slokas, viz., vaisnavanam yatha sambhuh, etc., is that

Sambhu, in pursuance of the will of Govinda, works in union with his consort

Durga-devi by his own time energy. He teaches pious duties (dharma) as

stepping-stones to the attainment of spiritual service in the various tantra-

sastras, etc., suitable for jivas in different grades of the conditional

existence. In obedience to the will of Govinda, Sambhu maintains and fosters

the religion of pure devotion by preaching the cult of illusionist (Mayavada)

and the speculative agama-sastras. The fifty attributes of individual souls are

manifest in a far vaster measure in Sambhu and five additional attributes not

attainable by jivas are also partly found in him. So Sambhu cannot be called

a jiva. He is the lord of jiva but yet partakes of the nature of a separate

portion of Govinda.






diparcir eva hi dasantaram abhyupetia


dipayate vivrta-hetu-samana-dharma


yas tadrg eva hi ca visnutaya vibhati


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




dipa-arcih–the name of a lamp; eva–as; hi–certainly; dasa-antaram–another

lamp; abhyupetya–expanding; dipayate–illuminates; vivrta-hetu–with its

expanded cause; samana-dharma–equally powerful; yah–who; tadrk–similarly;

eva–indeed; hi–certainly; ca–also; visnutaya–by His expansion as Lord

Vishnu; vibhati–illuminates; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original

person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






The light of one candle being communicated to other candles, although it burns

separately in them, is the same in its quality. I adore the primeval Lord

Govinda who exhibits Himself equally in the same mobile manner in His various







The presiding Deities of Hari-dhama, viz., Hari, Narayana, Visnu, etc.. the

subjective portions of Krsna, are being described. The majestic manifestation

of Krsna is Narayana, Lord of Vaikuntha, whose subjective portion is

Karanodakasayi Vishnu, the prime cause, whose portion is Garbhodakasayi.

Ksirodakasayi is again the subjective portion of Garhhodakasayi Visnu. The word

“Visnu” indicates all-pervading, omnipresent and omniscient personality. In

this sloka the activities of the subjective portions of the Divinity are

enunciated by the specification of the nature of Ksirodakasayi Vishnu. The per-

sonality of Vishnu, the ennbodied form of the manifestive quality (sattva-guna)

is quite distinct from that of Sambhu who is adulterated with mundane

qualities. Vishnu’s subjective personality is on a level with that of Govinda.

Both consist of the unadulterated substantive principle. Visnu in the fornn of

the manifest causal principle is identical with Govinda as regards quality. The

manifestive quality (sattva-guna) that is found to exist in the triple mundane

quality, is an adulterated entity being alloyed with the qualities of mundane

activity and inertia. Brahma is the dislocated portion of the Divinity,

manifested in the principle of mundane action, endowed with the functional

nature of His subjective portion; and Sambhu is the dislocated portion of the

Divinity manifested in the principle of mundane inertia possessing similarly

the functional nature of His subjective portion. The reason for their being

dislocated portions is that the two principles of mundane action and inertia

being altogether wanting in the spiritual essence any entities, what are

manifested in them, are located at a great distance from the Divinity Himself

or His facsimiles. Although the mundane manifestive quality is of the

adulterated kind, Vishnu, the manifestation of the Divinity in the mundane

manifestive quality, makes His appearance in the unadulterated manifestive

principle which is a constituent of the mundane manifestive quality. Hence

Vishnu is the full subjective portion and belongs to the category of the

superior isvaras. He is the Lord of the deluding potency and not alloyed with

her. Visnu is the agent of Govinda’s own subjective nature in the form of the

prime cause. All the majestic attributes of Govinda, aggregating sixty in

number, are fully present in His majestic manifestation, Narayana. Brahma and

Siva are entities adulterated with mundane qualities. Though Vishnu is also

divine appearance in mundane quality (guna-avatara), still He is not

adulterated. The appearance of Narayana in the form of Maha-Visnu, the ap-

pearance of Maha-Visnu in the form of Garbhodakasayi and the appearance of

Visnu in the form of Ksirodakasayi, are examples of the ubiquitous function of

the Divinity. Vishnu is Godhead Himself, and the two other guna-avataras and

all the other gods are entities possessing authority in subordination to Him.

From the subjective majestic manifestation of the supreme self-luminous Govinda

emanate Karanodakasayi, Garbhodakasayi, Ksirodakasayi and all other derivative

subjective divine descents (avataras) such as Rama, etc., analogous to

communicated light appearing in different candles, shining by the operation of

the spiritual potency of Govinda.






yah karanarnava-jale bhajati sma yoga-


nidram ananta-jagad-anda-sa-roma-kupah


adhara-saktim avalambya param sva-murtim


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yah–He who; karana-arnava–of the Causal Ocean; jale–in the water;

bhajati–enjoys; sma–indeed; yoga-nidram– creative sleep; ananta–unlimited;

jagat-anda–universes; sa– with; roma-kupah–the pores of His hair;

adhara-saktim–the all-accommodating potency; avalambya–assuming; param–

great; sva-murtim–own subjective form; govindam– Govinda; adi-purusam–the

original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I adore the primeval Lord Govinda who assuming His own great subjective form,

who bears the name of Sesa, replete with the all-accommodating potency, and

reposing in the Causal Ocean with the infinity of the world in the pores of His

hair, enjoys creative sleep [yoganidra].






(The subjective nature of Ananta who has the form of the couch of Maha-Visnu,

is described.) Ananta, the same who is the infinite couch on which Maha-Visnu

reposes, is a distinctive appearance of the Divinity bearing the name of Sesa,

having the subjective nature of the servant of Krsna.






yasyaika-nisvasita-kalam athavalambya


jivanti loma-vilaja jagad-anda-nathah


visnur mahan sa iha yasya kala-viseso


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yasya–whose; eka–one; nisvasita–of breath; kalam–time; atha–thus;

avalambya–taking shelter of; jivanti–live; loma-vila-jah–grown from the hair

holes; jagat-anda-nathah–the masters of the universes (the Brahmas); visnuh

mahan–the Supreme Lord Maha-Visnu; sah–that; iha–here; yasya– whose;

kala-visesah–particular plenary portion or expansion; govindam–Govinda;

adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






Brahma and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of hair

of Maha-Visnu, remain alive as long as the duration of one exhalation of the

latter [Maha-Visnu]. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whose subjective

personality Maha-Visnu is the portion of portion.






The supreme majesty of the subjective nature of Vishnu is shown here.






bhasvan yathasma-sakalesu nijesu tejah


sviyam kiyat prakatayaty api tadvad atra


brahma ya esa jagad-anda-vidhana-karta


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




bhasvan–the illuminating sun; yatha–as; asma-sakale$u–in various types of

precious stones; nijesu–his own; tejah– brilliance; sviyam–his own;

kiyat–to some extent; prakatayati–manifests; api–also; tadvat–similarly

atra–here; Brahma–Lord Brahma; yah–who; esah–he; jagat-anda-vidhana-

karta–the chief of the universe; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original

person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I adore the primeval Lord Govinda from whom the separated subjective portion

Brahma receives his power for the regulation of the mundane world, just as the

sun manifests some portion of his own light in all the effulgent gems that bear

the names of suryakanta, etc.






Brahma is two types: in certain kalpas when the potency of the Supreme Lord

infuses Himself in an eligible jiva, the latter acts in the office of Brahma

and creates the universe. In those kalpas when no eligible jiva is available,

after the Brahma of the previous kalpa is liberated, Krsna, by the process of

allotment of His own potency, creates the Brahma who has the nature of the

avatara (descent) of the Divinity in the active mundane principle (rajo-guna).

By principles Brahma is superior to ordinary jivas but is not the direct

Divinity. The divine nature is present in a greater measure in Sambhu than in

Brahma. The fundamental significance of the above is that the aggregate of

fifty attributes, belonging to the jiva, are present in a fuller measure in

Brahma who possesses, in a lesser degree, five more attributes which are not

found in jivas. But in Sambhu both the fifty attributes of jivas as also the

the additional attributes found in Brahma are present in even greater measure

than in Brahma.






yat-pada-pallava-yugam vinidhaya kumbha-


dvandve pranama-samaye sa ganadhirajah


vighnan vihantum alam asya jagat-trayasya


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yat–whose; pada-pallava–lotus feet; yugam–two; vinidhaya–having held;

kumbha-dvandve–upon the pair of tumult; pranama-samaye–at the time of

offering obeisances; sah–he; gana-adhirajah–Ganesa; vighnan–obstacles;

vihantum–to destroy; alam–capable; asya–of these; jagat-trayasya–three

worlds; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him, aham–I;







I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, whose lotus feet are always held by Ganesa

upon the pair of tumult protruding from his elephant head in order to obtain

power for his function of destroying all the obstacles on the path of progress

of the three worlds.






The power of destroying all obstacles to mundane prosperity has been delegated

to Ganesa who is the object of worship to those who are eligible to worship

him. He has obtained a rank among the five gods as Brahma possessing mundane

quality. The self-same Ganesa is a god in possession of delegated power by

infusion of the divine power. All his glory rests entirely on the grace of







agnir mahi gaganam ambu marud disas ca


kalas tathatma-manasiti jagat-trayani


yasmad bhavanti vibhavanti visanti yam ca


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




agnih–fire; mahi–earth; gaganam–ether; ambu–water; marut–air;

disah–directions; ca–also; kalah–time; tatha–as well as; atma–soul;

manasi–and mind; iti–thus; jagat-trayani–the three worlds; ,yasmat–from

whom; bhavanti– they originate; vibhavanti–they exist; visanti;–they enter:

yam–whom; ca–also; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person;

tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






The three worlds are composed of the nine elements, viz., fire, earth, ether,

water, air, direction, time, soul and mind. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda

from whom they originate, in whom they exist and into whom they enter at the

time of the universal cataclysm.






There is nothing in the three worlds save the five elements, ten quarters, time

jiva-soul, and the mental principle allied with the subtle body consisting of

mind, intelligence and ego of conditioned souls. The elevationists (karmis)

make their offerings in sacrifice in the fire. Conditioned souls know nothing

beyond this perceptible world of nine elements. The jiva is the self-same soul

whose ecstatic delight the joyless liberationists (jnanis) aspire after. Both

the principles that are respectively depicted as atma and prakrti by the system

of Sankhya are included in the above. In other words all the principles that

have been enunciated by all the speculative philosophers (tattva-vadis) are

included in these nine elements. Sri Govinda is the source of the appearance,

continuance and subsidence of all these principles.






yac-caksur esa savita sakala-grahanm


raja samasta-sura-murtir asesa-tejah


yasyajnaya bhramati sambhrta-kala-cakro


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yat–of whom; caksuh–the eye; esah–the; savita–sun; sakala-grahanam–of all

the planets; raja–the king; samasta-sura–of all the demigods; murtih–the

image; asesa-tejah–full of infinite effulgence; yasya–of whom; ajnaya–by the

order; bhramati–performs his journey; sambhrta–complete; kala-cakrah–the

wheel of time; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him;

aham–I; bhajami–worship.






The sun who is the king of all the planets, full of infinite effulgence, the

image of the good soul, is as the eye of this world. I adore the primeval Lord

Govinda in pursuance of whose order the sun performs his journey mounting the

wheel of time.






Certain professors of the Vedic religion worship the sun as Brahman. The sun is

one of the hierarchy of the five gods. Some people target in heat the source of

this world and therefore designate the sun, the only location of heat, as the

root cause of this world. Notwithstanding all that may be said to the contrary,

the sun is after all only the presiding deity of a sphere of the sum total of

all mundane heat and is hence a god exercising delegated authority. The sun

performs his specific function of service certainly by the command of Govinda.






dharmo ‘tha papa-nicayah srutayas tapamsi


brahmadi-kita-patagavadhayas ca jivah



govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




dharmah–virtue; atha–also; papa-nicayah–all vices; srutayah–the Vedas;

tapamsi–penances; brahma-adi–beginning from Lord Brahma; kita-pataga–

insects; avadhayah–down to; ca–and; jivah–jivas; yat–by whom; datta–

conferred; matra–exclusively; vibhava–by the power; prakata–manifested ;

prabhavah–potencies; govindam–Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person;

tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, by whose conferred power are maintained the

manifested potencies, that are found to exist, of all virtues, all vices, the

Vedas, the penances and all jivas, from Brahma to the meanest insect.






By dharma is meant the allotted functions of varna and asrama manifested by the

twenty dharma-sastras on the authority of the Vedas. Of these two divisions

varna-dharma is that function which is the outcome of the distinctive natures

of the four varnas, viz., brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudra and

asrama-dharma is that function which is appropriate to the respective asramas

or stations of those who belong to the four stages, viz., brahmacarya,

grhastha, vanaprastha and sannyasa. All customary activities of mankind have

been targeted in these twofold divisions. Sins mean nescience, the root of all

sins and sinful desire, also the greatest iniquities and sins flowing from them

and the ordinary sins, i.e., all sorts of unprincipled conduct. The category of

the srutis means Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva and the Upanisads which form the

crest jewels of the Veda. The tapas mean all regular practices that are learnt

with the view of the attainment of the proper function of the self. In many

cases, e.g., in the form known as panca-tapas these practices are of a

difficult character (yoga) with its eight constituents limbs and devotedness to

the knowledge of the undifferentiated Brahman are included therein. All these

are so many distinctive features within the revolving round of the fruitive

activities of conditioned souls. The conditioned souls are embarked on a

sojourn of successive births from 84 lakhs of varieties of generating organs.

They are differentiated into different orders of beings as divas, danavas,

raksasas, manavas, nagas, kinnaras, and gandharvas. These jivas, from Brahma

down to the small insect, are infinite in type. They make up the aggregate of

the conditioned souls from the degree of Brahma to that of the little fly and

are the distinctive features within the revolving wheel of karma. Every one of

them is endowed with distinctive powers as individuals and is powerful in a

particular sphere. But these powers are by their nature not fully developed in

them. The degree of power and nature of property vary according to the measure

of manifestation of the possessions of the individual conferred upon him by Sri







yas tv indragopam athavendram aho sva-karma-


bandhanurupa-phala-bhajanam atanoti


karmani nirdahati kintu ca bhakti-bhajam


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yah–He who (Govinda); tu–but; indra-gopam–to the small red insect called

indragopa; atha va–or even; indram–to Indra, king of heaven; aho–oh;

sva-karma–of one’s own fruitive activities; bandha–bondage;anurupa–according

to; phala–of reactions; bhajanam–enjoying or suffering; atanoti–bestows;

karmani–all fruitive activities and their reactions; nirdahati–destroys;

kintu–but; ca–also; bhakti-bhajam–of persons engaged in devotional service;

govindam– Govinda; adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I;







I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who burns up to their roots all fruitive

activities of those who are imbued with devotion and impartially ordains for

each the due enjoyment of the fruits of one’s activities, of all those who walk

in the path of work, in accordance with the chain of their previously performed

works, no less in the case of the tiny insect that bears the name of indragopa

than in that of Indra, king of the devas.






God impartially induces the fallen souls to act in the way that is consequent

on the deeds of their previous births and to enjoy the fruition of their labors

but, out of His great mercy to His devotees, He purges out, by the fire of

ordeal, the root of all karma, viz., nescience and evil desires. Karma, though

without beginning, is still perishable. The karma of those, who work with the

hope of enjoying the fruits of their labors, becomes everlasting and endless

and is never destroyed. The function of sannyasa is also a sort of karma

befitting an asrama and is not pleasant to Krsna when it aims at liberation,

i.e., desire for emancipation. They also receive fruition of their karma and,

even if it be disinterested, their karma ends in atma-mamata, i.e.,

self-pleasure; but those who are pure devotees always serve Krsna by gratifying

His senses forsaking all attempts of karma and jnana, and being free from all

desires save that of serving Krsna. Krsna has fully destroyed the karma, its

desires and nescience of those devotees. It is a great wonder that Krsna, being

impartial, is fully partial to His devotees.






yam krodha-kama-sahaja-pranayadi-bhiti-




sancintya tasya sadrsim tanum apur ete


govindam adi-purusam tam aham bhajami




yam–upon whom; krodha–wrath; kama–amorous passion; sahaja-pranaya–natural

friendly love; adi–and so on; bhiti– fear; vatsalya–parental affection;

moha–delusion; guru-gaurava–reverence; sevya-bhavaih–and with the attitude

of willing service; sancintya–meditating; tasya–of that; sadrsim–befitting;

tanum–bodily form; apuh–attained; ete–these persons; govindam–Govinda;

adi-purusam–the original person; tam–Him; aham–I; bhajami–worship.






I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, the meditators of whom, by meditating upon

Him under the sway of wrath, amorous passion, natural friendly love, fear,

parental affection, delusion, reverence and willing service, attain to bodily

forms befitting the nature of their contemplation.






Devotion is of two kinds, viz., (1) of the nature of deference to regulation

and (2) constituted of natural feeling. Bhakti is roused by following with a

tinge of faith in the rule of the sastras and instruction of the preceptors.

Such bhakti is of the nature of loyalty to the scriptural regulations. It

continues to be operative as long as the corresponding natural feeling is not

roused. If a person loves Krsna out of natural tendency, there is the principle

of raga, which is no other than a strong desire to serve, which turns into

bhava or substantive feeling. When the substantive feeling is aroused the

devotee becomes an object of mercy of Krsna. It takes much time to attain this

stage. Devotion which is of the nature of feeling is superior to that con-

nected with scriptural regulation, soon attains to the realize state and is

attractive to Krsna. Its various aspects are described in this sloka.

Santa-bhava, full of reverence to superior, dasya-bhava, full of service for

carrying out the commands of the object of worship, sakhya-bhava or natural

friendly love, vatsalya-bhava or parental affection and madhura-bhava or

amorous love, are all included in the category of devotion of the nature of

instinctive attachment. But anger, fear and delusion, though they are of the

nature of instinctive impulse, are not devotion in the strict sense of the

term, because they are not friendly but hostile to the object. Anger is found

in asuras like Sisupala, fear in Kamsa, and delusion in the panditas of the

pantheistic school. They have the feelings of anger. fear and instinctive

impulse marked by complete self-forgetful identification with the non

differentiated Brahman. But as there is no friendly feeling towards the object

of devotion there is no bhakti. Again among the feelings of santa, dasya,

sakhya, vatsalya and madhura–santa, though indifferent and dormant in raga, is

still reckoned as bhakti on account of its being a little friendly. There is an

immense volume of raga in the other four varieties of emotion. By the promise

of Gita, ye yatha mam prapadyante tams tathaiva bhajamy aham (“l serve one

according to his submission”), those, who allow themselves to be actuated by

the sentiments of fear, anger and delusion, attain to sayujya-mukti (merging in

the Absolute). The santas obtain bodily forms with aptitude for addiction to

Brahman and Paramatma. The dasya and sakhya classes of worshipers attain bodily

forms characterized by masculine or feminine disposition according to their

respective grades of eligibility. The vatsalya class of worshipers get bodily

forms befitting fatherly and motherly sentiments. The amorous lovers of Krsna

attain the pure forms of gopis (spiritual milkmaids of Vraja).








sriyah kantah kantah parama-purusah kalpa-taravo


druma-bhumis cintamani-gana-mayi toyam amrtam


katha ganam natyam gamanam api vamsi priya-sakhi


cid-anandam jyotih param api tad asvadyam api ca




sa yatra ksirabdhih sravati surabhibhyas ca su-mahan


nimesardhakhyo va vrajati na hi yatrapi samayah


bhaje svetadvipam tam aham iha golokam iti yam


vidantas te santah ksiti-virala-carah katipaye




sriyah–Laksmis, goddesses of fortune, kantah–loving consorts; kantah–the

enjoyer, lover; parama-purusah–the Supreme Personality of Godhead;

kalpa-taravah–desire trees; drumah–all the trees; bhumih–the land;

cintamani-gana-mayi–made of the transcendental touchstone jewels; toyam– the

water; amrtam–nectar; katha–talking; ganam–song; natyam–dancing;

gamanom–walking; api–also; vamsi–the flute; priya-sakhi–constant companion;

cit-anandam–transcendental bliss; jyotih–effulgence; param–the supreme;

api–also; tat–that; asvadyam–everywhere perceived; api ca–also; sah–that;

yatra–where; ksira-abdhih–ocean of milk; sravati–flows; surabhibhyah–from

surabhi cows; ca–and; su-mahan–very great; nimesa-ardha–half a moment;

akhyah–called; va–or; vrajati–passes away; na–not, hi– certainly;

yatra–where; api–even; samayah–time; bhaje–I worship; sveta-dvipam–

Svetadvipa; tam–that; aham–I; iha–here; golokam–Goloka; iti–thus;

yam–which; vidantah–know; te–they; santah–self-realized souls; ksiti– in

this world; virala–seldom; carah–going; katipaye–few.






I worship that transcendental seat, known as Svetadvipa where as loving

consorts the Laksmis in their unalloyed spiritual essence practice the amorous

service of the Supreme Lord Krsna as their only lover; where every tree is a

transcendental purpose tree; where the soil is the purpose gem, all water is

nectar, every word is a song, every gait is a dance, the flute is the favorite

attendant, effulgence is full of transcendental bliss and the supreme spiritual

entities are all enjoyable and tasty, where numberless milk cows always emit

transcendental oceans of milk, where there is eternal existence of

transcendental time, who is ever present and without past or future and hence

is not subject to the quality of passing away even for the space of half a

moment. That realm is known as Goloka only to a very few self-realized souls in

this world.






That region which jivas attain by the best performance of their rasa-bhajana

though purely transcendental, is by no means devoid of variegatedness. The non-

differentiated region is attained by indulging in anger, fear and delusion. The

devotees attain Goloka, the transcendental region above Vaikuntha, according to

the quality of rasa of the respective services. In reality that region is no

other than Svetadvipa or “the White Island,” being exceedingly pure. Those, who

attain the highest rasa in the shape of the realization of pure devotion in

this world, viewing the reality of Svetadvipa in Gokula, Vrndavana and

Navadvipa within this mundane world, designate the same as “Goloka.” In that

transcendental region of Goloka there are always visible, in their supreme

beauty, all the distinctive entities that are incorporated in the pure

cognitive principle, viz., the lover and His beloved ones, trees and creepers,

mountains, rivers and forests, water, speech, movement, music of the flute, the

sun and the moon, tasted and taste (i.e., the unthinkable wonders of the 64

aesthetic arts), milk cows yielding nectarean flow of milk and transcendental

ever-existing time.


Descriptions that supply the clue to Goloka are found in various places in the

Vedas and the other sastras such as the Puranas, tantras etc. The Chandogya

says: bruyad yavan va ayam akasas tavan esa antar hrda akasah ubhe asmin dyava-

prthivi antar eva samahite. ubhav agnis ca vayus ca surya-candramasav ubhau

vidyun naksatrani yac casyehasti yac ca nasti sarvam tad asmin samahitam iti.


The sum and substance of it is that all the variegatedness of this mundane

world and much more variety over and above the mundane, are to be found in

Goloka. The variety in the transcendental world is fully centralized whereas in

the mundane world it is not so and hence productive of weal and woe. The

centralized variety of Goloka is unalloyed and full of transcendental cognitive

joy. The Vedas and sadhus practicing devotion revealed by the Vedas by availing

the support of their individual cognitional aptitude actuated by devotion, may

have a sight of divine realm and by the power of the grace of Krsna their tiny

cognitive faculty attaining the quality of infinitude they are enabled to be on

the level of the plane of enjoyments of Krsna.


There is a hidden meaning of the proposition “even the Supreme that is also

nevertheless the object of enjoyment” (param api tad asvadyam api ca).

The word param api indicates that Sri Krsna is the only Truth Absolute in all

the transcendental blissful principles and tad asvadyam api means His object of

enjoyment. The glory of Radha’s love for Krsna, tasty quality (rasa) of Krsna

that is realized by Radha and the bliss of which Radha is conscious in the

process of such realization, all these threefold bhavas (emotional entities)

becoming available for enjoyment by Krsna He attains His personality of Sri

Gaurasundara. It is also this that constitutes the transcendental bliss of the

delicious loving (rasa) service manifested by Sri Gaurasundara. This also

eternally exists only in the selfsame Svetadvipa.






athovaca maha-visnur


bhagavantam prajapatim


brahman mahattva-vijnane


praja-sarge ca cen matih


panca-slokim imam vidyam


vatsa dattam nibodha me




atha–then; uvaca–said; maha–visnuh–the Supreme Lord; bhagavantam–unto the

glorious; prajapatim–Lord Brahma; brahman–O Brahma; mahattva–of the glory

(of Godhead); vijnane–in real knowledge; praja-sarge–in creating offspring;

ca–and; cet–if; matih–the inclination; panca-slokim–five slokas;

imam–this; vidyam–science; vatsa–O beloved; dattam–given; nibodha–hear;

me–from Me.






On hearing these hymns containing the essence of the truth, the Supreme Lord

Krsna said to Brahma, “Brahma, if you experience the inclination to create

offspring by being endowed with the real knowledge of the glory of Godhead,

listen, My beloved, from Me to this science set forth in the following five







The Supreme Lord became propitious when Brahma with great eagerness chanted the

names, “Krsna” and “Govinda” expressive of the form, attribute and pastimes.

Brahma was actuated by the desire for mundane creation. Krsna then said to

Brahma how pure unalloyed devotion can be practiced by souls engaged in worldly

occupations by combining the same with the desire for carrying out the behest

of the Supreme Lord. “The knowledge absolute is knowledge of the glory of God-

head; if you want to procreate offspring being endowed with such knowledge,

listen attentively to the science of devotion that is contained in the

following five slokas.”


(How bhakti is practiced by performing worldly duties in the form of carrying

out the commands of the Supreme Lord, is being described).






prabuddhe jnana-bhaktibhyam


atmany ananda-cin-mayi


udety anuttama bhaktir






prabuddhe–when excited; jnana–by cognition or knowledge; bhhaktibhyam–and

by devotional service; atmani–in the pure spirit soul; ananda-cit-mayi– full

of knowledge and bliss; udeti–is awakened; anuttama–super excellent;

bhaktih–devotion; bhagavat–for Krsna; prima–by love; laksana–







When the pure spiritual experience is excited by means of cognition and service

[bhakti], superexcellent unalloyed devotion characterized by love for Godhead

is awakened towards Krsna, the beloved of all souls.






Real knowledge is nothing but knowledge of one’s relationship to the Absolute.

Real knowledge is identical with the knowledge of subjective natures of cit

(animate), acit (inanimate) and Krsna and of their mutual relationship. Here

mental speculation is not alluded to, since that is antagonistic to service

(bhakti). The knowledge that embraces only the first seven of the ten basic

principles (dasa-mula) is the knowledge of relationship. The substantive nature

of the spiritual function (abhidheya) inculcated by the science of devotion

hearing, chanting, meditation, tending His holy feet, worshiping by rituals,

making prostrations, doing menial service, practicing friendship and

surrendering oneself are identical with practicing the search for Krsna. It is

specifically described in Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. Devotion (bhakti)

characterized by love for Godhead makes her appearance by being awakened by

such knowledge and practice. Such devotion is superexcellent bhakti and is no

other than the final object of attainment of all spiritual endeavor of the

individual soul (jiva).






pramanais tat-sad-acarais


tad-abhyasair nirantaram


bodhayan atmanatmanam


bhaktim apy uttamam labet




pramanaih–by scriptural evidence; tat–of them; sat-acaraih–by theistic

conduct; tat–of them; abhyasaih–by practice; nirantaram–constantly;

bodhayan–awakening; atmana–by one’s own intelligence; atmanam–the self;

bhaktim–devotion; api–certainly; uttamam–the highest; labhet–one can







The highest devotion is attained by slow degrees by the method of constant

endeavor for self-realization with the help of scriptural evidence, theistic

conduct and perseverance in practice.






Evidence–the devotional scriptures, e.g., Srimad-Bhagavatam, the Vedas, the

Puranas, the Gita, etc. Theistic conduct–the conduct of pious persons (sadhus)

who are pure devotees and the conduct of those pious persons who practice

devotion to Godhead actuated by spontaneous love. Practice– to learn about the

ten basic principles (dasa-mula) from the sastras and on receiving the name of

Hari as laid down in the same, embodying the name, form, quality and activity

of the Divinity, to practice the chanting of the name by serving Him night and

day. By this are meant study of the sastras and association with the sadhus.

The tenfold offense to holy name ceases by serving the name of Hari and

simultaneously practicing pious conduct. “Practice” is no other than following

the mode of service of the name practiced by the sadhus without offense. By

perseverance in such practice and devotion characterized by love which is the

fruit of spiritual endeavor makes her appearance in the pure essence of the







yasyah sreyas-karam nasti


yaya- nirvrtim apnuyat


ya sadhayati mam eva


bhaktim tam eva sadhayet




yasyah–than which; sreyah-karam–superior well-being; na– not; asti–there

is; yaya–by which; nirvrtim–supreme bliss; apnuyat–one can attain; ya–who;

sadhayati–leads; mam–to Me; eva–certainly; bhaktim–loving devotion;

tam–that; eva–indeed; sadhayet–one should perform.






These preliminary practices of devotion [sadhana-bhakti] are conducive to the

realization of loving devotion. [Loving devotion]–than whom there is no

superior well-being, who goes hand in hand with the attainment of the exclusive

state of supreme bliss and who can lead to Myself.






The jiva-soul has no better well-being than loving devotion. In this is

realized the final beatitude of jivas. The lotus feet of Krsna are attainable

only by loving devotion. He who cultivates the preliminary devotional

activities anxiously keeping in view that realized state of devotion can alone

attain to that object of all endeavor. None else can have the same.






dharman anyan parityajya


mam ekam bhaja visvasan


yadrsi yadrsi sraddha


siddhir bhavati tadrsi




kurvan nirantaram karma


loko ‘yam anuvartate


tenaiva karmana dhyayan


mam param bhakim icchati




dharman–meritorious performances; anyan–other; parityajya–abandoning;

mam–Me; ekam–alone; bhaja–serve; visvasan–having faith; yadrsi yadrsi–just

as; sraddha–faith; siddhih–realization; bhavati–arises; tadrsi–

corresponding; kurvan–performing; nirantaram–ceaselessly; karma–activi-

ties; lokah ayam–the people of this world; anuvartate–pursue; tena–by those;

eva–indeed; karmana–deeds; dhyayan–meditating; mam–upon Me; param–supreme;

bhaktim–devotion; icchati–one obtains.






Abandoning all meritorious performances serve Me with faith. The realization

will correspond to the nature of one’s faith. The people of the world act

ceaselessly in pursuance of some ideal. By meditating on Me by means of those

deeds one will obtin devotion characterized by love in the shape of the supreme





The function characterized by unalloyed devotion is the real function of all

individual souls (jiva). All other varieties of function are activities of the

external cases. These exoteric and esoteric dharmas (functions) are manifold,

e.g., nondifferential knowledge of the Brahman aiming at extinction of

individuality, the astanga-yoga-dharma having as its goal attainment of the

state of exclusive existence (kaivalya), atheistical fruitive ritualism aiming

at material enjoyment, jnana-yoga-dharma seeking to combine knowledge with

fruitive activity and the practice of the function of barren asceticism.

Getting rid of all these, serve Me by pure devotion rooted in faith. Exclusive

faith in Me is trust. Faith in the form of trust by the process of gradual

purification tends to become a constant engagement (nistha), an object of

liking (ruci), of attachment (asakti) and a real sentiment (bhava). The more

transparent the faith, the greater the degree of realization. If you ask–How

will the preservation and conduct of worldly affairs be feasible if one is

continuously engaged in the endeavor for the realization at bhakti? What also

will be the nature of the endeavor for the realization of bhakti when the body

will perish consequent on the cessation of the function of the body and of



In order to strike at the root of this misgiving the Supreme Lord says, “This

world subsists by the constant performance of certain activities. Fill all

these activities with meditation of Me. This will destroy the quality that

makes those activities appear as acts done by you. They will then be of the

nature of My service (bhakti).


“Mankind live by the threefold activities of body, mind and society. Eating,

seating, walking, resting, sleeping, cleansing the body, covering the body

etc., are the various bodily activities; thinking, recollecting, retaining an

impression, becoming aware of an entity, feeling pleasure and pain, etc., are

the mental feats; marrying, practicing reciprocal relationship between the king

and subject, practicing brotherhood, attending at sacrificial meetings,

offering oblations, digging wells, tanks, etc., for the benefit of the people,

maintaining one’s relations, practicing hospitality, observing proper civic

conduct, showing due respect to others are the various social activities. When

these acts are performed for one’s selfish enjoyment, they are called

karma-kanda; when the desire for attainment of freedom from activity by

knowledge underlies these actions, they are termed jnana-yoga or karma-yoga.

And when these activities are managed to be performed in this way that is

conducive to our endeavor for attainment of bhakti they are called jnana-

bhakta-yoga, i.e., the subsidiary devotional practices. But only those

activities that are characterized by the principle of pure worship are called

bhakti proper. My meditation is practiced in every act when bhakti proper is

practiced in due time while performing the subsidiary devotional activities in

one’s intercourse with the ungodly people of this world. In such position, a

jiva does not become apathetic to Godhead even by performing those worldly

activities. This constitutes the practice of looking inwards, i.e., turning

towards one’s real self, vide isopaniad–


isavasyam idam sarvam


yat kincya jagatyam jagat


tena tyaktena bhunjitha


ma grdhah kasya svid dhanam


The commentator says in regards to this, tena isa-tyaktena visrstena. The real

significance being that if whatever is accepted be received as favor vouchsafed

by the Supreme Lord, the worldly activity will cease to be such and will turn

into service of Godhead (bhakti). So lsavasya says kurvann eveha karmani …

karma lipyate nare.


If the worldly acts are performed in the above manner one does not get

entangled in karma even in hundreds of years of worldly life. The meaning of

these two mantras from the jnana point of view is renouncement of the fruits of

one’s worldly actions; but from the bhakti point of view they mean the

attainment of Krsna’s favor (prasadam) by the the transfer to His account. In

this method, which is the path of arcana, you should do your duties of the

world by the meditation of worshiping Godhead thereby. Brahma cherishes the

desire for creation in his heart. If that creative desire is practiced by

conjoining the same with the meditation of obeying therein the command of the

Supreme Lord, then it will be a subsidiary spiritual function (gauna-dharma)

being helpful for the growth of the disposition for the service of the Divinity

by reason of its characteristic of seeking the protection of Godhead. It was

certainly proper to instruct Brahma in this manner. There is no occasion for

such instruction in the case of a jiva in whom the spontaneous aversion for

entities other than Krsna manifests itself on his attainment of the substantive

entity of spiritual devotion (bhava).






aham hi visvasya caracarasya


bijam pradhanam prakrtih pumams ca


mayahitam teja idam bibharsi


vidhe vidhehi tvam atho jaganti




aham–I; hi–certainly, visvasya–of the world; cara-acarasya–of animate and

inanimate objects; bijam–the seed; pradhanam–the substance of matter;

prakrtih–the material cause; puman–the purusa; ca–and; maya–by Me; ahitam–

conferred; tejah–fiery energy; idam–this; bibharsi–you bear; vidhe–O

Brahma; vidhehi–regulate; tvam–you; atha u–now; jaganti–the worlds.






“Listen, O Vidhi, I am the seed, i.e., the fundamental principle, of this world

of animate and inanimate objects. I am pradhana [the substance of matter], I am

prakrti [material cause] and I am purusa [efficient cause]. This fiery energy

that he longs specially to the Brahman, that inheres in you, has also been

conferred by Me. It is by bearing this fiery energy that you regulate this

phenomenal world of animate and inanimate objects.”






Certain thinkers conclude that the nondifferentiated Brahman is the ultimate

entity and by undergoing self-delusion (vivarta) exhibits the consciousness of

differentiation; or, the limiting principle itself (Maya), when it is limited,

is the phenomenal world and is itself the Brahman, in its unlimited position;

or, the Brahman is the substance and this phenomenal world is the reflection;

or, everything is an illusion of the jiva. Some think that Godhead is evidently

a separate entity, jiva is another different entity, and the phenomenal world,

although it is a singular principle, exists separately as an eternally inde-

pendent entity; or, Godhead, is the substantive entity and all other entities,

as cit and a-cit attributes, are one in principle. Some suppose that by the

force of inconceivable potency sometimes the monistic and sometimes the

dualistic principle is realized as the truth. Some again arrive at the

conclusion that the theory of the nondual minus all potency is meaningless;

whence the Brahman is the one eternally unalloyed entity vested with the pure



These speculations have originated from Veda relying on the support of the

Vedanta-sutra.In these speculations although there is no truth that holds good

in all positions, there is yet a certain measure of truth. Not to speak of the

anti-Vedic speculations Sankhya, Patanjala, Nyaya and Vaisesika nor even of

Purva-mimamsa which is fond of exclusive fruitive activity in conformity with

the teaching of one portion of the Veda, the bodies of opinions detailed above

have also come into existence by relying outwardly on the Vedanta itself. By

discarding all these speculations, you and your bona fide community should

adopt the ultimate principle identical with the doctrine of acintya-bhedabheda

(inconceivable simultaneous distinction and nondifference). This will make you

eligible for being a true devotee. The basic principle is that this animate

world is made up of jivas and the inanimate world is constituted of matter. Of

these all the jivas have been manifested by My supreme (para) potency and this

phenomenal world has been manifested by My secondary (apara) potency. I am the

cause of all causes. In other words, I regulate all of them by the power of My

will although I am not a different entity from the marginal and material (ta-

tastha and acit) potencies. By the transformation of those distinct potencies

pradhana (substantive material principle), prakrti (material cause) and purusa

(efficient cause) have been produced. Hence although as regards the subjective

nature of all potency I am pradhana, prakrti and purusa, yet as the possessor

of power I am eternally distinct from all those potencies. This simultaneous

distinction and nondifference has also sprung from My inconceivable power. So

let the attainment of love for Krsna by the practice of pure devotion through

the knowledge of their mutual true relationship that subsists between the jiva,

the jada (matter) and Krsna based on the principle of inconceivable

simultaneous distinction and nondifference, be My instruction for being handed

down in the order of spiritual preceptional succession in your community (Sri







The Author


Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati was born in the holy pilgrimage place of

Jagannatha Puri to Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, a great Krsna conscious

spiritual master in the line of succession coming from Lord Caitanya. Although

employed as a government magistrate, Srila Bhaktivinoda worked tirelessly to

establish the teachings of Lord Caitanya in India, where, unfortunately, the

people had come to neglect the principles of devotional service to the Supreme

Lord, Krsna. He envisioned a worldwide Krsna consciousness movement and prayed

to the Lord for a son to help him achieve his dream.


On February 6, 1874, in the sacred pilgrimage town of Jagannatha Puri, where

Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura served as superintendent of the famous Jagannatha

temple, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati appeared in this world. He was given

the name Bimala Prasada. At the age of seven, Bimala Prasada had memorized the

more than seven hundred Sanskrit verses of the Bhagavad-gita and could speak

illuminating commentaries upon them. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura, the author of

many important books and other writings on the philosophy of Krsna

consciousness, trained his son in printing and proofreading.


By the time he was twenty-five years old, Bimala Prasada had acquired an

impressive reputation as a scholar of Sanskrit, mathematics, and astronomy.

His astronomical treatise, Surya-siddhanta, won him the title Siddhanta

Sarasvati in recognition of his immense learning. In 1905, following the advice

of his father, Siddhanta Sarasvati accepted spiritual initiation from

Gaurakisora Dasa Babaji. Although Gaurakisora Dasa Babaji was renowned as a

saintly person and great devotee of Lord Krsna, he was illiterate. Satisfied

with the humility and dedication of his highly educated disciple, Srila

Gaurikisora gave him his full blessings and requested him to “preach the

Absolute Truth and keep aside all other work.” Siddhanta Sarasvati then proved

himself a capable assistant in the missionary work of his father.


Upon the death of Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in 1914, Siddhanta Sarasvati

became editor of his father’s Journal, Sajjana-tosani, and founded the Bhagwat

Press for publication of Krsna conscious literature. Then in 1918, Siddhanta

Sarasvati accepted the renounced order of spiritual life, assuming the title

Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Maharaja. For the purpose of

propagating Krsna consciousness throughout India, he organized the Gaudiya

Math, with sixty-four branches throughout the country. The headquarters of his

mission, the Caitanya gaudiya Math, was located in Sridhama Mayapur, the

birthplace of Lord Caitanya. He would later send disciples to Europe for

missionary work.


Srila Bhaktisiddhanta adjusted the traditions of Krsna consciousness to conform

with the technological and social conditions of the twentieth century. He

considered the printing press the most effective means of spreading Krsna

consciousness throughout the world and was himself the author of many important

translations, commentaries, and philosophical essays. He was the first

spiritual master to allow his renounced preachers (sannyasis) to wear Western

clothes and travel in modern conveyances rather than on foot.


In 1922, an intelligent young college student named Abhay Caran De happened to

visit Srila Bhaktisiddhanta at the Gaudiya Math center in Calcutta. Srila

Bhaktisiddhanta immediately advised the young man that he should preach the

message of Krsna consciousness to the Western world in the English language.

Although not able to immediately carry out Srila Bhaktisiddhanta’s desire,

Abhay became an active supporter of the Gaudiya Math. In 1933, Abhay formally

became a disciple of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta, who gave him the name Abhay



Throughout the 1930s, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta expanded and increased his

missionary work and succeeded in reestablishing Krsna consciousness as the

leading force in Indian spiritual life. Anxious that his work continue, he

urged his disciples to form a joint Governing Body Commission to manage the

Gaudiya Math in his absence. On January 1, 1937, Srila Bhaktisiddhanta

Sarasvati passed from this world. Unfortunately, his leading disciples did not

heed his instruction to maintain a Governing Body Commission, and as a result

the Gaudiya Math as a united preaching missionary organization gradually



Abhay Charanaravinda, however, remained faithful to the vision of Srila

Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati that Krsna consciousness become a worldwide movement

and to the order he had personally received from him. He accepted the renounced

order of life, sannyasa, assuming the title Bhaktivedanta Swami Maharaja, and

in 1965 traveled to the United States to preach Krsna consciousness in the

English language. Srila Bhaktivedanta Swami founded the International Society

for Krishna Consciousness and established a Governing Body Commission, which

continues to direct the movement since his departure from this world in 1977.

Thus, by the sincere efforts of His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami

Prabhupada and his followers, the work of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati is

continuing throughout the world.

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