MADHVACARYA EMPOWERED RETURNS TO PREACH
By the time Madhvacarya had reached ground level, so to speak, after leaving that holy place and returning to the lowlands, he had his Brahma Sutra Bhasya and several hand written copies prepared. As usual, an advance copy was sent to Udupi to the old Acyutapreksa.
Seeing Madhva back from the Himalayas everyone was very very happy, and a huge feast was prepared by five or six brahmins, headed by Agnisharma, to celebrate in true Vaisnava style. However Madhva ate most of the feast that was set for him and all his followers. Madhvacarya, if he so wanted, could eat the entire world, like at the time of devastation. That is, if he so desired, what to speak of a feast for just a few hungry men.
Narayana Panditacarya, the compiler of Madhva Vijay, states how our hero composed his Brahma Sutra Bhasya on Vedanta Sutra, to instruct the devotees about the nature of God. Vedanta Sutra consists of four chapters. The first two chapters discuss the relationship of the living entity with the Supreme Lord Krsna. This relationship is called sambandha-jnana.
The third chapter describes how one can act in that relationship with the Lord. This is called abhidheya-jnana. It discusses how we are the Lord’s eternal separated parts and parcels, qualitatively one with the Lord, yet quantitatively very tiny compared to the Almighty personality of Godhead, and that we are meant for His pleasure, to serve Him.
The fourth chapter describes the result of such devotional service – prayojana-jnana, which is to go back to home, back to Godhead, which is the ultimate goal of life (anavrttih sabdat).
Each of these four chapters is again divided accordingly into five different adhikaranas or themes.
(1) Pratijna, is the initial declaration of the purpose of each treatise. For example, the declaration at the beginning of Brahma Sutra states athato-brahma-jijnasa – now is the time to enquire into the subject matter of the Absolute Truth.
(2) Hetu, is giving the reasons for the declaration and how it must be expressed.
(3) Udaharana means various examples are given to substantiate those facts.
(4) Upanaya, the theme of the particular subject, must be gradually brought to it’s conclusion so the hearer can grasp the understanding of the subject.
(5) Nigamana, every statement must be supported from authoritative quotations from the Vedic literatures.
Brahma-sutra-padais caiva hetumadbhir viniscitaih – understanding of the ultimate goal of life is ascertained in the Brahma Sutra by legitimate logic and argument concerning cause and effect. As Brahma Sutra Bhasya is niyaya prasthana, the Upanisads are known as sruti-prasthana, and the Gita, Mahabhata and the Puranas are known as smrti prasthana.
The correct conslusions are made not by mere mundane logic and argument, but by bonafide logic and argument, taken from the revealed scriptures that support smrti and sruti. Simply sensual perception (pratyaksa) and reason is not enough. These are the tenants of Vedanta Sutra.
Purnaprjana Tirtha (Madhva) compiled this Sutra Bhasya under the direct instructions of the original commentator of Vedanta Sutra, Srila Vyasadeva. He has firmly established the differences between the tiny jiva soul and his worshipful Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. So establishing difference of dwaitavada, the kevaladwaita exclusive oneness philosophy of Acarya Sankara, has now only a limited life span. This dark and limited philosophy of Adwaita cannot stand in the light of Sutra Bhasaya, just as where there is sun there cannot be darkness.
Madhvacarya not only comments on the shakey philsophy of Advaita, but also attacks twenty one other previous commentators of Vedanta Sutra. In this way Madhva let no other stand without it’s philosophy being known. Twenty one other commentators according to Madhva Vijay footnote 9-12 are as follows, (1) Bharativijay, (2) Sacchidananda, (3) Brahma Ghosa, (4) Satananda, (5) Udvarta, (6) Vijaya, (7) Rudrabhatta, (8) Vamana, (9) Yadavaprakasha, (10) Ramanuja, (11) Bhartruprapanca, (12) Dravida, (13) Brahmadatta, (14) Bhaskara, (15) Pisaca, (16) Vrttikara, (17) Vijayabhatta, (18) Visnukranta, (19) Vadindra, (20) Madhavadasa, and (21) Sankara.
MADHVA STARTS HIS TOUR
Madhvacarya then started a return tour taking a rather indirect route back to Udupi – via Bihar, Bengal, the banks of the Godavari, and finally back to Udupi. One can imagine in the days when sannyasis would walk everywhere, this journey took some months. During this tour many wonderful things happened.
Madhva started out heading east through Bihar, following the path of the Ganges into Bengal, where Acarya Madhva met with and discussed with the Personality of Godhead, the son of Saci Matha, Sri Krsna Caitanya.
The following story is found in the Bhavisya Purana supporting an actual meeting of Sri Krsna Caitanya and Madhvacarya, in that sacred place known a Navadwip Mayapura Dham, of which Santipur is part.
Even thoughfrom a mundane historical point of view Madhvacarya appeared more than 200 years before Caitanya Mahaprabhu, still it is more amazing that Bhavisya Purana records this, having itself been written at least five housands of years before both. In the original sanskrit texts, the son of Saci is referred to as ‘she’ and ‘her’ depicting Lord Caitanya’s mood of Srimati Radharani. Bhavisya means prediction, so this Purana itself is the book of predictions of the Vedic library.
Chapter 19 of Pratisarga Parva.
48. Sri Madhvacarya who is completely absorbed in Krsna knowing that ‘yajnamsa’ is perfect and having reached Santipuri which is supremely attractive, that twice born brahmin asked the Lord.
49. Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead and He is the cause of these worlds. Then what is the reason for some not worshiping Him and Him only? What is the root cause for one to worship demigods?
50. Those learned in the path of ‘sakti’ engage in sacrifices of violence and they worship the devas (demigods) in this world by sacrifices such as ‘asvamedha’.
51. The son of Saci – the yajnamsa – on hearing this smilingly said, “For those in the mode of ignorance, who worship sakti (Durga), Krsna is not revealed as the Supreme Bhagavan.”
52. “They are only interested in material sense gratification, absorbed in violence and meat eating. They enjoy other’s wives and for these activities attain only the abode of Yama.”
53. “These criminals, especially those engaged in the sin of killing other living beings, reach the abode of Yama. Devoid of the proper sentiments towards life, they have no realization that Bhagavan is superior to the material nature that they worship.”
54. The Supreme Lord was in another aged worshipped as follows. His intelligence is Brahma and identification Siva (auspicious). The very sound of who is Ganesa and His touch is Yama.
55. Form is Kurma and taste Kuvera. Smell is Visvakarma and hearing is Lord Sani.
56. Skin is Brmh (which shines, with lustre) and the eternal sun is the eye. Tongue is Lord Svara and the new dawn of the day is the son of Aswin.
57. The face is like that of the jiva and Indra the moving hand. Krsna is the feet and Daksa the progentive male genital organs and the back is death. O obeisances unto that Lord Purusha.
58. By violent sacrifices only He is to be satisfied. Previously in the days of yore sacrifical animals were offered and this Deity, it is to be understood then that in those days He was present to receive the offering. By liberating the sacrifical animal from that animal body, one obtains great pious results.
59. However by breaking these rules, whoever performs such violent yajnas in this age of Kali certainly becomes sinful. Due to this sin that person will dwell in Andhantamasa hell for practically eternity.
60. From voilent sacrfices both great pious results and great impious results can be achieved. Sri Krsna has put a stop to these violent sacrifices in the age of Kali, replacing them with another sacrifice.
61. On the first day of the waxing moon in the month of Kartika (Oct-Nov), the Lord has initiated a sacrifice which is known as Annakuta (Govardhana Puja).
62. The king of the devas, Indra, became displeased because his sacrifices were being stopped and so he tried to flood the land of Vraja. But the eternal energy of Krsna Who is compasssion personified intervened for the welfare of the inhabitants.
63. That energy, the divine mother in her beautiful form manifested from Krsna in the form of Radha.
64. By that energy, Bhagavan Sri Krsna held the Govardhana Hill. Due to this feat He has become worshipable as ‘Giridhari’ for ever.
65. In this divine form of Radha and Krsna, Brahman is eternally complete. In this form Krsna is not Bhagavan, yet as Radha Krsna, the energy and the energetic pleasure potency personified, is more perfectly Supreme, infact even more completely complete than Krsna alone.
66. Hearing this description from that person who is the personification of Radha Krsna combined, Madhvacarya, who is very dear to Lord Hari, became even more fixed as a pure devotee of that Lord, and an eternal worshipper of Sri Krsna Caitanya.
brahmam padmam vaisnavam ca
saivam laingam sa-garudam
varaham matsyam kaurmam ca
brahmandakhyam iti tri-sat
These verses were taken from Maha Bhagavata Purana (Srimad Bhagavatam) as they list the eighteen major Puranas that were written by Srila Vyasadeva. These were all compiled and written before five thousand years ago by the literary incarnation of Godhead, Vedavyasa. These verses (SB 12.7.23-24) are also supported in the Varaha Purana, Siva Purana and Matsya Purana, so Bhavisya Purana is defintely an authorised source of information.
Madhva proclaimed that the Sruti says that in this age animal sacrifice is not permitted. Of course this was just reminded to Madhva by the Yajnamsa shortly before in Navadvipa Dhama by the son of Saci, Krsna Caitanya.
In other places like Navadvipa Mahatmya, instances of the Lord appearing to Madhva in dreams whilst he stayed at Navadvipa, west Bengal in the district of Nadia all confirm that Madhva actually visited this seat of learning. According to the Upansidas also this Navadvipa Dhama, consisting of nine islands in the Ganges River, is said to be equal to the original birth place of Lord Krsna – Sri Vrndavana.
In Rg Veda (8.29.7) it is also stated how the original Personality of Godhead, Who previously appeared as Urukrama (Vamanadeva), also visited that place (tirtha) where the devotees like to go, because of its holy sanctity.
In Sri Krsna Caitanya Upanisad 5, Lord Brahma said, “I shall speak to you this supreme confidential knowledge. The two armed form of Syamasundara of beautiful blackish blue conplexion, who is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul within everything, the greatest mystic, beyond the three modes of material nature and endowed with a form of trancendental goodness with a beautiful golden complexion, will appear in Navadvipa Dhama, the spiritual counterpart of Goloka on the banks of the Ganges, to disseminate devotional service throught the world. These verses are the summary of this matter.”
Text 6 says, Lord Caitanya, Who is a golden colour, is the original Personality of Godhead. He has a universal form, He is the great soul and in previous ages He appeared in forms that were red, blackish and white. His self is pure consciousness, for His energy is certainly transcendental. He has the appearance of a devotee and bestows pure devotion for Himself upon all. He can only be known by means of devotional service.”
Madhvacarya, in his Mundakopanisad, quotes the following words from Narayana Samhita. “In the Dwapara age Visnu was worshipped by all peoples by the method laid down in the Pancaratra. In the present controversial age of Kali, the Supreme Lord Hari is worshipped by His name alone.”
Again Caitanya Upanisad 9 says, “The almighty Lord pleases everyone with the mula-mantra of His holy name.” and 11 says, “He Himself chants the maha-mantra which consists of three names: Hare, Krsna and Rama.”
In Mundaka Upanisad (3.1.3.) it is stated that “One who sees that golden coloured Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Lord, the creator, Who is the source of the impersonal Brahman, is liberated.”
Madhvacarya not only went to this holy place, but Lord Caitanya appeared to him in at least two instances and spoke with Madhva. When He appeared in Madhva’s dream, the Lord told Madhva that later He would appear and make use of Madhva’s pure vaisnava philosophy and would also accept Madhva’s sampradaya. Acarya Madhva was instructed to preach like anything and establish the Vaisnava conclusion, but to worship the Lord who had revealed himself in His golden form in secret, for the time was not yet right for the public to accept Him.
After this time, Madhva many times spoke the philosophy of acintyabhedabheda tattva, but Madhva never used the actual term. In Bhagavata Tatparya (11.7.51) where Madhva cites a verse from Brahma-Tarka, he directly used the philosophy of simultaneously one and yet different but without saying one, for as Sri Caitanya pointed out, the time was not right for this philosophy, no-one would be ready for it.
Madhvacarya, from Navadvipa Dhama, travelled down to Jagannatha Puri in Orissa to take darshan of the Lord of the universe. Madhvacarya visited all the important sacred tirthas down that east coast of Orissa, such as Sri Kurmaksetra at Ganjam near Kakulam. It is a very ancient place of pilgrimage, dating back to the time of Svetamaharaja in the time lost through ages. This fine old temple stands with it’s silver dome glistening in the sun by the side of the Kurma lake. Lord Kurma shows His opulence in the form of the opulent temple with fine colonades, columns and open court yards where the devotees still assemble for discussions, festivals and chanting the Lord’s glories.
From there he toured still further to the hill at Simhacalam near Vishakapatnam, taking darshan of Lord Varaha Nrsimhadeva there. This is the place where Hiranyakasipu, Prahlada’s demoniac father, threw Prahlada into the sea from off a mountain. He then placed this mountain on top of Prahlada’s head, but Prahlad remained unscathed by such torment. The main feature today at this splendid temple is the Saligram Deity of Lord Varaha Narasimha, though this can only be seen on the Nrsimha Caturdasi day falling at the end of April beginning of May on the fourteenth day of the rising moon.
From there Madhwacarya travelled still further south into Andra Pradesh to the banks of the sacred Godavari River. On the banks of the Godavari, which flow across country forming a natural border with Karnataka, some say it was at Rajamundry at the mouth of the Godavari that Madhva countered and defeated the attacks of all the popular philosophies of the day.
To define points of philiosophy, Madhva used the Pramanas (ways of validifying knowledge) or as Madhva put it, yathartham pramanam, the process by which an object is made known as it is. Taking each philosophy, that of Bhattam Prabhakara, Vaisesika, Nayayaka, Bauddha and Charvaka, Madhva clarified the truth to establish things as they are in relation with the Lord.
For example, the smarta followers of Kumarila Bhatta regarded knowledge as something transcendent and non-sensible which can only be inferred to by a mental state of cognition. Their validity of perception of anything is only tangible or apparent when an object has inference to it such as a jug. They say that the object is permanent by knowledge of it. However they deny the permanance of any form, be it jiva or God.
Thinking by limited reasoning that all known form is like that of this temporary material world, and knowing that these things, because of their misuse, causes frustration, anxiety and suffering, then how can there by anything other than this. Actualy they have no conception of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Whose body is made of sac cid ananda vigraha (eternality, knowledge and bliss), or of the nature of the Lord’s separated parts and parcels the tiny jiva souls as dependant servants of the Lord. Indeed they are a strange breed of materialistic brahmanas who see everything in relation to what they can get out of it.
Kumarila Bhatta recreated the ancient brahminical train of thought stemming from Manu (Manu Samhita or Manu Smrti) and established what is known as smarta-ism. Much stress was put on animal sacrifices, the chanting of Vedic mantra, etc. as outlined in Mimamsa philsophy. He was around the time of Sankara (700 AD) and his philosophy is generally referred to as Nyaya-Vaisesika. Madhwacarya addressed some of the basic points of Nyaya-Vaisesika which are (1) the self validity of the Vedas, (2) the eternality of the Vedas, (3) disbelief in any creator or God, (4) eternality of sound (sabda) and according to Kumarila (5) direct perception of the self in the vague notion of ego.
Another of the personalities that Madhwa dealt with was Prabhakara. The followers of Prabhakara regard knowledge or understanding as self-luminous, in that way at any given moment, understanding through revelation of any given object, can be had and thus one knows the subject of the object of knowegde – “I am aware of that.” (But are they???) ZAP, POW, instant self realization.
Vaisesika’s reasoning, and their conclusion, is that we can directly percieve the self in a feeling of I am that, and that they have no need therefore to rely or depend on any scripture for proof of the existance of the self. Reasoning or inference of that existance of the self is only an additional proof of what they have already found through perception,” that I am.”
Kanada points out that since there is nothing else but self to which the expression “I” may be applied, there is no need to fall back on scriptures. The problem is one can and will find oneself way off track in a very short time. They have gotten things completely the wrong way around. Sensual perception can it is a fact, be used as a means of knowledge, providing it falls into the conclusion of the original creator, the Supreme Lord, Sruti. What then to speak of their logic and argument? That’s alright in itself again provided that the logician is sane and his arguments agree with the Lord’s conclusion found in the sruti or scriptures. For when any intelligent person creates, he also gives operating manuals for the benefit of the user or those who will come later. So these arguments are really just like the ramblings of children who don’t really know anything as fact, but are playing with the controls, and thinking see I am doing.
Madhva strongly makes his stand through Upajivya pramana or the logical starting point to define the validity of any subject. He says with what one concludes from this furnishes the next stage of thought or knowledge. But if one’s examination does not fall in line with proven facts as stated previously, then that sensual perception or knowledge found by Upajivya pramana or Pratyaksa can be rejected. But when it comes to saksipratyaksa, saksi is the knowledge which comes down from time immemorial like the smrti sastra, what the Lord’s pure representitive, the guru has said, which is enforced by by combinations of sastra and practical reaization, this cannot be doubted and has never seen to have been wrong. The other authority that must be accepted is bheda sruti, one has to accept. Despite everything, sruti or that which has been spoken by the Supreme Lord in the form of scripture, must be fully accepted.
According to Svetasvatara Upanisad (3.18)
nava-dvare pure dehi
hamso lelayate bahih
vasi sarvasya lokasya
sthavarasya carasya ca
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Who is living within the body of a living entity, is the actual controller of all living entities all over the universe. This body consists of nine gates, two eyes, two nostrils, two ears, one mouth, the anus and genital. The tiny living entity in his conditioned stage identifies himself with the body, but when he identifies himself with the Lord within and becomes subservient to him, the jiva becomes just as free as the Lord, even while in this body.”
If one is on the brahma bhuta platform then certainly the Lord may reveal things from within but in the conditioned state if one expects the Supreme Lord to become his servant, this is simply wishful thinking. An example of our power of perception can be given through the example of some blind men and an elephant. One may touch the trunk and say that an elephant is long and wet at one end. Another may touch the ear and say no, an elephant is round and flat like a dish, whilst a third man may feel the stomach and say that it is big and round with spiky hairs. How much can each of them perceive? Another example may be given in connection with a son. If he wants to know who his father is, then he has to ask his mother. He could, by his own speculation or inductive thinking, try to find out who his father is by who was in the vicinty at the time, or he could go up to every man on the planet and ask, “If you,sir are my father?” But easier would be to ask one who will know. If one simply waits for that knowledge to come of its own accord, or instead makes vast endeavour to get it, one could very easily be wrong, there is no guarantee. Actually it is a great field for mental speculators. “Now there is a horn and there is a hare, thats it, a horn of a hare. I’ve seen the horn of the hare.” “Or flowers that float in the sky.” Or seeing pumpkins in a field of horses and asuming them to be horses eggs. Definitely flowers are real and so is the sky, but flowers that float in the sky? Sounds like the ramblings of an over producive mind.
These “Jains” though, see it to be that knowledge will be revealed to us from within. The Jains say that actaully getting any said objective is directly a result of the effort to get it. So they say by having the indication that an object or objective exists and by a flash of inner knowledge one will have the object, and will also have full realization or understanding of the subject. This philosophy relies on sensual perception also, as stated earlier, one can actually perceive things with the senses and the mind, but alas, when we are dealing with spiritual topics which temselves are not of this world, just how much can a limited material mind or the senses perceive. Sometimes the mind will recall gold and another time a tree or a mountain, then the mind may combine them together and come up with a golden mountain which may or may not exist, yet now we find we are witnesses to the mind’s picture show. There are so many concoctions the mind has introduced to us as it’s wonderful revelations.
If this philosophy leaned to the acceptance of the Supersoul, some would say that the Supersoul or Paramatma within had revealed this knowledge, but the don’t.
Mostly they are mayavadis, and false renounciates. They won’t ride on any conveyance, to them everything is false. They fall in somewhere between the Buddhists and the Mayavadis. It is nice that they are nonviolent to others but their annihilistic philosophy is set on killing their real self. Unfortunatelly they try to avoid God thinking that simply negation of worldliness will suffice. Although the will not accept the Vedic authority originally they are an off shoot of the followers of Lord Rsabhadev.
Madhwa presented the question, then an answer. Some doubt arises who can distinguish between the mind and the supersoul without real knowledge of each, simply relying on inner revelation to define what is true and what is false. One must accept an authority, and this is the guru and scripture for they are the guiding intelligence personified.
Around this time there were many speculator for Madhwa to clean up. Another mentioned in Madhwa Vijay was the Naiyayika philosophy. This tries to say that by inference or reasoning with known factors, and the harmony or corresponding of our perception of a particular thing with the activity of it has prompted us to realize it. An example of this can be that when I am sure that if I work in accordance with the perception of an object I shall be successful, and I call that valid knowledge of the object in question. Like if I work hard I’ll become a millionair, but its not necessarily a fact there are many who have worked like asses only to remain poor hard working asses.
Though their philosophy says that by inference or reason through experience one can understand that consciousness, pleasures, pains, willing, etc could not belong to our body or the senses, there must by some entity to which they belong. They say that by seeing the world as a source of suffering one should renonounce it for it is false. By the understanding that this world is the cause of suffering due to our bondage or attachment to it which is based on misidentification or false knowledge, therefore we should just think of the opposite of all that is the cause of us suffering. So when pleasure comes, we are to think that this in relatity is pain, so rejecting all pleasure, be fixed in renounciation of this false place. (just another twist under the influence Buddhistic insanity).
The Buddhist (Bauddha) view of Pramana, they say that simply by thought of anything it will manifest and thus for as long as it is there one will have knoweldge of it. An example they give is that knowledge of any thing is possible only by virtue that one puts the particular name on a thing that gives it identity to oneself, and thus making things similar or tangible, when you take the label off it disappears, after all everything is coming from only my idea that it is existing anyway. But this can be easily refuted with the verse from Bahagavad-gita (2.12),
na tv evaham jatu namam
na tvam neme janadhipah
na caiva na bhavisyamah
sarve vayam atah param
“Never was there a time when I did not exists, nor you, nor all these kings, nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.”
Every material thing has it’s origin in the eternal spiritual Lord. The Lord asures us in Bhagavad-gita (10.8) “I am the source of the material and spiritual worlds. Everything emanates from Me ….”
But the Buddhists reject this saying that there is nothing but “I”. They completely reject that there can be “you” or any other. Therefore just for us to repesent an argument against their philosophy defeats this, for an argument to take place there must be two, or at least a second factor, yet this is their main principle, that it is only “I am”, only I count, (the sound of one hand clapping). As individuals with independence to choose and to act and dress differently, separate from the “Buddhist philosopher” in a different place at a different time, how can it all be a product of their fertile minds?
As far as the hedonistic philosophy of Carvaka, Carvaka himself was an existentialist, which, according to the dictionary means, “one who follows a philosophical theory emphasizing that man is responsible for his own actions and free to choose his development and destiny.” 
This philosophy is the paradise of the cynic. It came to be known as Lokayata philosophy, propounding that there is no future life; our parents are our progenitors, and that nothing which cannot be proven by one’s own perception should be believed.
This sceptic, whose only idea was that of “enjoyment” in this material world, once made the following statement – since everyone wants to enjoy nice foodstuffs one should eat as much ghee as possible. One may say, “I have no money, then how shall I purchase ghee?”
Carvaka’s reply is:
rnam krtva ghrtam pibet
yavaj jivet sukham jivet
bhasmi-bhutasya dehasya kutah
dunar agamano bhavet
“If you have no money, then beg, borrow or steal, but in some way secure ghee and enjoy life. You will not be held responsible. As soon as your body is burned to ashes after your death then everything is finished.”
In this way people have been trained up – do anything you like but somehow or another get money, for if one has money one can eat nicely. Cakvaka’s philosophy goes along with the atheistic mood of perform any kind of activity one likes, completely disregarding the scriptural injunctions and completely without concern for future bondage, what to speak of distress or violence caused to others in the pursuit of sense gratification. According to Bhagavad-gita (18.25) this is action in the mode of darkness or ignorance.
Actions which need great endeavour in which to make them succeed – the goal being again to satisfy the lusty desires of the senses, and which are based on the platform of false ego, are considered by Bhagavad-gita (18.24) to be in the mode of passion at best.
To work hard to become a ‘big man’ in society with lots of money which brings, of it’s own accord, recognition, honour and prestige, irrespective of whether the money is black (illegal) or white (laundered), just bring in money at fever pitch. Opulent conveyances and expensive clothes maketh the man is propounded by Carvaka. Its now or never enjoy at all costs even if one is up to the neck in debts. This philosophy is the fuel for fools, you are a success in the Kali Yuga. “Look at me, I’m a success everywhere I go, all heads turn attracting the glances of the opposite sex, women adore me for my opulence and ‘self control’, men are forced to look up to me. I am the Lord of all I survey. All this I have gotten by my own efforts. I have worked hard for this and I have the right to enjoy.”
Loans and mortgages are taken out to build a nice house, simply for sleeping in. After sleep, sex indulgence with persons who the false prestige image has won over. This system of Carvakas’, of satisfying one’s own lusty desires, has no regard for another’s property for it or she can be bought when required, for the world is my oyster, for as long as I am here, and then who cares?
Anyone who comes to say anything different from me is my enemy, through polarization, manipulation, diplomacy and duplicity I will defend my property and position against others. Those who wish to be my friends can work according to my rules. If not, the rules for dealing with an enemy take over to belittle and ridicule the victim.
These persons are always very cunning like the dog and expert in biting others’ heels through expertly planned executions in forums judged by vollies of public insults.
The followers of this hedonistic system of philosophy propounded by Carkava are, according to Bhagavad-gita (18.27) extremely greedy, always envious and impure, even though externally they may look very good. Consequently they are moved by their own distress and own search for mundance happiness but have not a thought for others. For the sake of sense gratification they will lie, cheat, and steal. Being envious of everyone they are prepared to do any deed to get what they want.
Thinking themselves lord, they avoid scriptural injunctions, they do not accept the actual Lord either directly or indirectly, primarily because it is His injunctions which makes the standard that is designed to stop such exploitation of the senses. Therefore they are especially envious of the Lord.
The followers of Carvaka’s philosophy are thus more than just materialistic. They work according to their particular mode of nature as previously stated, which is sometimes in ignorance, sometimes passion, and sometimes mixed.
Unfortunately, due to the elements of lust and greed, the followers of Carvaka Muni are mostly unhappy, for they have no faith in anything tangible other than their own feeble bodies, mind, and puny intelligence. Because of their exploitive natures, they are without actual friends, for who can they trust, and who would put their trust in them. Duplicit and cynical towards anyone who is happy or free, they are more dangerous than snakes, for a snake can be killed. But an envious man daily spreads his poison through his plans to increase his sense gratification, and his kingdom.
Naturally this philosophy appeals to those who don’t care how they get what they want out of life, irrespecitive of what it is, or how it is come by, or who gets in the way. However, despite Madhva’s outright condemnation of Carvaka’s hedonistic philosophy, Madhva accepts the pratyaksa (or reality of experience, memory and sensual awareness that Carvaka uses as his only source of knowledge), though Madhva doesn’t accept pratyaksa as the only source of knowledge. Madhva calls Carvaka’s philosophy dehatmavada, or the philosophy that I am this body.
Relentlessly presenting many arguments in this mode, Madhvacarya barely flexed his philosophical muscles and yet smashed all of these so-called pandits from each respective school. At this time an exponent of the doctrine of the Vedas came forward. This was the great Sobhana Bhatta, who was the best of logicians. He had recently refuted the Bhatta philosophy. Sobhana Bhatta was learned in all aspects of Veda, Mahabharata, the eighteen Puranas, and naturally he followed the injunctions and observances thereof.
Sobhana Bhatta came forward amidst the hundreds of famous pandits, and after undergoing some preliminaries, mediators were established. Sobhana Bhatta presented the philosophy of Advaita and Madhvacarya presented his ‘new’ philosophy of dwaita. Though eighteen departments of Vedic learning were represented in the asssembly of pandits, all of those who had been previously defeated by Madhva looked on. Now Sobhana Bhatta was to face the same end even though he was to put up a good fight, but Acarya Madhva was more than his match. Victorious in his debate, Madhwa, having countered all the arguments of Sobhana Bhatta, in an all-illuminating way outshone the Bhatta in every way. After this, as stated in Madhva Vijay (9.20), Sobhana Bhatta, so taken back by the greatness of Madhvacarya and his Gita Bhasya, that Sobhana Bhatta never had any further love for any other sastra from that day on. Madhva Vijaya (9.21-22) says that any man who disregards Madhva Sastra is no better than a man who owns a lime kiln that pounds limestone for using it in chewing betal, and who, whilst searching, sifting through the limestone, finds a priceless Valamuri conch. Seeing that it could not be baked into lime he just throws it away even though to those who know this conch it is very rare and precious. Sometimes this right handed Valamuri conch is called “Laxmi” conch, born from Varuna and who bestows the worshipper with wealth, etc.
In their firey debate Sobhana Bhatta, who was learned in the 14 schools of Vedic learning, was silenced by Madhva in fourteen seconds. He begged in humble submission to his newly found guru, Bhagavatapada Madhvacarya. In full prostration Sobhana Bhatta longed to become a disciple of the amazing Madhvacarya.
Another pandit of the time, Sami Sastri, who was the son of noble-man, approached Madhva for debate. His father held a very high post with the monarch of the King of Kalinga, Orissa. He had inherited the prestige and postion of his noble father, and was a favourite around the King’s court. Sami Sastri’s learning of the scriptures didn’t seem to fit in his position as son of a nobleman. If he had been the son of a sage or rsi, maybe, but not as a noble man’s son, he was so learned.
Sami Sastri had heard many things about Madhva and was very much attracted to him, so much so that he approached Madhva and asked for initiation. Madhva accepted the boy as his pupil-disciple, and gave him the name Narahari. Narahari now constandtly studied Madhva’s Sutra Bhasya and soon became expert in it’s conclusions. Soon Madhva decided to leave the area of the Godavari to return to Udupi. Narahari also joined him as Madhva left for that place.
After travelling only but a short distance, Madhva told his disciple Narahari to go back to the kingdom of Kalinga. In the Narahari Yatistotra it states that the purpose for Narahari’s return was on the direct order of Madhva to procure from the royal treasury the Deity of Sri Mula Rama. Mula literally means root, or original sourse, an so this was a very special Deity. This Deity was the legendry Deity of Maharaja Iksvaku of the Sun Dynasty. This exquisit Deity of Lord Rama was later given to Maharaja Dasaratha the father of Lord Rama. Maharaja Dasaratha worshipped this original form or Deity before Lord Rama was even born to him as his son, and just before Lord Rama wound up His earthly pastimes, Laxman gave the Deity to one old brahmin devotee who, throughout his life had taken a vow that during the life of Lord Rama, had said he would not take his food until he had seen Lord Rama. Once upon a time, for a period of eight days, he could not take personal darshan of Lord Rama. As he was fasting totally, even from water for this whole period, he became weak and delirious. On the eighth day Rama gave a public darshan and the brahmin staggered in. Lord Rama, seeing His great devotion for him, told Laxman to give the Mula Rama Deity to this Brahmin so that this would enable the old brahmin to daily see his worshipful Lord. As time passed, the old brahmin became invalid, and could not even come to the palace to see Rama. Constantly worshipping Mula Rama though, even up until his death bed, with his final breaths he gave the Deity back to Laxman who the brahmin summoned near. When it was time for Lord Rama to wind up His earthly pastimes He arranged through Laxman that the Mula Rama Deity be given to Hanumanji.
Hanuman, for many years, carried Him around his neck, worshiping Him daily. Later, during the Dwapara Yuga, the Deity was given to Bhimasena whilst he was picking flowers for Draupadi on Ganda Madan hill. Mula Rama was kept with the Pandavas until finally they were given to the trust of the King of the Gajapati Kings of Orissa, named Ksemakanta. When the Pandavas wound up their earthly pastimes, this historically priceless Deity was kept in the King’s treasury house as a most treasured heir-loom.
However Sripad Madhvacarya, who is that same tattva of Vayu, previously possessing the Mula Rama Deity in the forms of Hanumana and Bhima, now requested Narahari not to take to the order of sannyasa as Narahari had requested to do, but to go back to Kalinga and secure Mula Rama. returning to Kalinga Nagara, Narahari again served in the kingdom.
Not long after that the ruling king passed away, and his infant son, for obvious reasons, could not be made king. As is the time honoured tradition, the royal elephant was sent out with the royal garland held high in his trunk to look for the successor to the throne. With the ministers following closely behind, they witness an incredible scene – the royal elephant garlanded Narahari, thus making him the heir to the throne of the Gajapat kingdom of Kalinga.
Around the year 1280 AD, when the Prince Regent, heir to the throne, became twelve years of age, Narahari relinquished his post as acting King. The child King, out of extreme gratitude, asked Narahari to ask for anything that he may have wanted, be it riches, kingdom, women, anything. Narahari asked for, and was thus given, the Mula Rama Deity by the King. Then he, who had become ruler of the whole country, returned to Madhvacarya, his beloved guru, and in a surrendered mood, renounced worldly affairs. Madhvacarya gave him the sannyasa order and the suffix ‘Tirtha’ to his name.
It seems that I have fallen prey to the same sequence of events as other commentators in getting caught up with this wonderful story of Narahari Tirtha and Mula Rama. Anyway, back to the present scene of events.
It is stated in Madhva Vijay (9.28) that Madhvacarya inundated everyone with his philosophy, though due to the nature of this Vedanta Sutra, mostly he preached to those of the brahminically learned society, just as a monsoon cloud pours rains and fills the needy low-lands with water, not shedding it’s water on the other areas or those places that are not so needy or firtile. For the brahminical class of men had been taken in, and in some cases forced to accept unpalletable philosophies. But now after this crying out for the pure Vaisnava teachings, the Lord had sent his empowered representative. Acarya Madhwa made all brahminical society happy again for the first time in many years.
Madhva was honoured by all for his very learned presentation of Sutra Bhasya, arousing the curiousity of everyone on the way back to Udupi.
MADHVA RETURNS TO UDUPI
On his return, there to greet him was the elderly ascetic Acyutapreksa. Previously Madhva had sent a copy of his Sutra Bhasya when he just left Badri, before his long tour of the east coast.
Acyutapreksa still played the part of the advaitin – such was his pastime, so Madhva could, in depth, explain to everyone in Udupi his Sutra Bhasya. Acyutapreksa was proud of Madhva and his achievements, his preaching and all the followers he had made. After Madhva had completed fully his explanation of Brahma Sutra Bhasya to Acyutapreksa, Acyutapreksa relented and agreed that this Sutra Bhasya was just like the King of swans that drives away insignificant crow-like philosophies of the Kali Yuga.
Daily Madhvacarya would go to the Anantesvara (Anantasana) temple. As on walks in, to the left side of the entrance in the area in front of the Deity, Madhva would sit and preach to many of his followers. Sitting in the open air, his golden body shimmering in the sunlight and propounding strongly thatt the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Suprem ISvara, is and always will be Lord Krsna – Narayana – Visnu and we are but His insignificant servants.
To thus prove submission from the Supreme Lord, Madhva arranged from the Pancaratiki system that his followers accept the marks of Vaisnavism – panca samskaras. The five reformitory – purificatory procedures as stated in the Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda.
tapah pundram tatha nama
mantro yagasca pancamah
ami hi panca samskarah
(1) Austerity, (2) wearing the marks of Visnu on one’s body, such as tilak, (3) accepting a new name at the time of initiation, (4) chanting the glorification of the Lord in the form of the Lord’s Holy name, and (5) engaging in the performance of the Yuga dharma or supreme sacrifice.
In his Mundakopanisad quoting Narayana Samhita, Madhva says, “… In the present controversial age of Kali, the Supreme Lord Hari is worshipped in the form of His Holy name alone.”
tapto ‘tra tapta cakrada-mudra dharanam ucyate
tenaiva hari namadi-mudra capy upalaksyate
Austerity means to accept the heat mudras or fire brands of the Lord’s weapons – the conch and disc – as well as the Lord’s names, His lotus and club. By taking these heat mudras upon one’s body, detachment from the bodily concept of life is invoked.
pundram syad urdhva pundram tal
chastre bahu vidham smrtam
hari mandiram tat pada
krty adyati subhanaham
Pundram here means marking the body with sacred clay from such holy places as Dwaraka, Prayag, the banks of the Ganges, Yamuna, Godavari, Pampa (Tungabhadra), Kaveri or from the sacred Tulasi plant. By marking the body with Vaisnava tilak or urdhva pundra or the forms of the Lord’s feet, one marks out the humility that one’s body is the temple of Lord Visnu.
Madhva instructed that as well as the vertical lines of gopichand, jointed at the mose like the letter U, a dark red bindu dot, made from the ash of plaintain flowers mixed with turmeric, be placed beneath a line of dhupasesa, which is the thickness of a grain of rice. The dupasesa is made from the burnt wick of the flames offered to the Lord during the arati ceremony.
namatra gaditam sadbhir
hari bhrtyatva bodhakam
swesta deva vapur matah
The word nama means name, and this means that when one is initiated the guru changes the name. As one changes one’s heart one must change one’s name indicating that he is a servant of the Lord. Next is mantra diksa. In this verse it is said that the Gopal gayatri, which is the same as the Lord Himself, is given.
salagramadi pujan yaga sabdena kathyate
pramanany esu drsyani duranadisu sadhubhih
By the world yaga, the worhsip of the Saligram Sila and other Deity forms of the Personality of Godhead are described, glorified and sung about in great joy. So in this way, taking the system from references throughout the Puranas and other Vedic literatures, Madhva established Vaisnava agama of initiation for his disciples based on the Pancaratriki system.
Narayana Panditacarya in Madhva Vijay (9.39) says “Both good knowledge and the mark of the Sudarshana disc have naturally an undesirable effect to those who wish to remain sinful.”
Traditionally in Udupi, tapta mudras are still accepted on the devasayan ekadasi day in the light fortnight in the Vaisnava month of Vamana or Asadha (June-July).
All the Madhva Vaisnavas, from that day on, accepted this panca samskara, giving up their old ways in a mood of self surrender to Madhvacarya’s pure Vaisnava teachings. Devotees would gather around Madhva wherever he would go; if it were to the temple, all the ears waited with baited breath for just one word of divine wisdom. If he went to the ocean to take bath, again crowds would assemble just to take tirtha (his caranamrta or water that had touched his holy body.) Such a pure Vaisnava is a walking place of pilgrimage. The result of taking unlimited baths in all the sacred bathing tanks or rivers can be had just by one eleventh of a second’s association with such a pure Vaisnava devotee of the Lord.
Many times Madhva would go to the beach at Malpe to perform his daily ablutions, performance of acaman, nyasa, etc., and distribute the tirtha and Tulasi afterwards. On other occasions he would slip away on his own around two or three o’clock in the morning to take his sea bath.
On one such occasion a wonderful and famous incident took place.
KRSNA COMES TO UDUPI
One morning in 1285 AD he had set out for Malpe beach, and as he walked he composed some of the verses, which later became part of the famed Dwadasa Stotram, in glorification to the Lord. On this day, Madhva felt a very special thing was about to happen – something that would be for the greatest benefit for all the devotees. Though Madhva didn’t reveal to anyone, he knew that before the sun had set on this coral reef beach, the Lord of his life would appear. Soon a storm occured and the wind blew up a tempest.
Madhva, calm and peaceful, stayed where he was on that beach, meditating on Lord Krsna. As this freak storm peaked, Madhvacarya saw a merchant ship with sails fully up being blown onto the edge of the coral reef. Being merciful by nature, Madhva, the son of the wind god, took his shawl and attached it to his sannyasa rod and waved it in the air. At the same time he deeply breathed in and miraculously the ship was sucked through a safe area of the reef to the beach where Madhva was waiting. As the ship touched the safety of the shore, the joyful crew glorified the lone ascetic who had saved their lives and costly cargo.
In the same swift way the storm had appeared, now it had gone, with it’s mission fulfilled. The captain of the ship approached our hero, Madhvacarya, and asked how could they repay him for saving them. “We have silk, spices, gems and gold – what would you like as certainly we are indebted to you?” Madhva simply asked from where had they come. Dwaraka was the reply. “O Dwaraka? Do you have any Gopichand on board?” I believe you do! The captain was happy to reply that they were using it as balast to keep the boat stable in the water. He immediately sent his men to bring the Gopichand from the cargo hold. Madhva however had his sights on a particular piece of Gopichand – it was huge and heavy and none of the fifty crew members combined could carry it. Madhvacarya reached into the hold and picking it up with great ease, lifted it out just as Hanuman lifted the Gandamadana Hill. In fact, as he did this feat, the crew members were heard to say, “Oh look, just like Hanuman, this ascetic monk has easily with one hand lifted this huge clod of Gopichand that all of our crew of fifty could not even move. How wonderful it is.”
It is said that just as the Purohit or priest gives up the association of the Yajuman (donor) after receiving the donation, and just as a prostitute gives up a pennyless man after extracting his money, so in the same way Madhvacarya, in deep and intense devotion, then carried single-handed this clod of Gopichant up the beach and towards the road which leads to Udupi.
As Madhva reached the end of the beach front, as the road turns to the right at the village of Odapaandi (modern day name meaning “where the sailing boat carrying the Deity came in”) a large piece of Gopichand broke off, and as it fell to the ground it revealed a deity of Lord Balarama. At that place was an ancient temple of Skanda Maharaja (Kartikeya, Subhramaniyam, Murugan, the son of Lord Siva). By tradition one cannot place a Deity of either a demigod or the Supreme Lord Visnu if the mood is not conducive to the harmony of both. So we can see that in this case, everything was perfect. The son of Lord Siva naturally worships his father Lord Siva, and Lord Siva worships the Lord known as Sankarsana. Lord Sankarshana, Who is whitish in complexion and dressed in a blue dhoti, is non other than an expansion of Lord Balarama, and so a happy union was made.
Madhva then installed the deity at that place where the Lord is known as Vadabandesvara.
In great jubilation, Madhvacarya carried the remaining piece of Gopichand to Udupi. As he walked he composed the rest of his Dwadasa Stotram prayers.
Upon his arrival in Udupi, Madhva gently placed this clod of gopichand into the temple lake called Madhva Sarovara. As he put the Gopichand into the water, the Gopichand broke open and dissolved, revealing a most wonderful sight. Soon, in excitement, a large crowd had gathered to see what the Gopichand had revealed. It was Bala-Krsna, holding a rope in one hand and a rod for driving cows in the other.
At the time of the advent of the Kali Yuga, Dwaraka and all of it’s residents wound up their pastimes as Lord Krsna and His transcendental brother Lord Balarama left for Their own abode, Goloka Vrndavan in the spiritual world. At this time Arjuna placed these Deities of Krsna and Balarama into Rukmini Vana in Dwaraka.
There is an oral tradition of the history of these Deities that has been handed down through time which gives us an account in accordance with Madhva Vijaya (9.41).
atraivam purvacarya pravadah-
kadacit devaki devi dwarakayam sutam harim
ucava bala lilanam darsanutsukamanasa
Mother Devaki, being desirous of witnessing the childhood pastimes that were denied her by fate, being locked up in the prison of Kamsa, appraoched Lord Krsna and asked this favour of Him.
yasoda balalilaste vilokya paramam mudam
jagama kila tatraikam lilam me krsna darsaya
O Krsna, Yasoda was so fortunate that she had the pleasure of enjoying Your childhood pastimes. Why don’t You please show to me similar sports and pastimes?
evam matra cuditu dwarakayam
krsno bhutva balakah karhicit tam
prapamandam dadhi samloodhayantim
lilabhavai ranjayan matr cittam
Taking into account of His mother’s intense feeling of love, Krsna assumed the form of the child again. Then by mystic potency He re enacted the drama of when she was churning curds into butter, and Krsna came crying to her and in this way entertained His mother, Devaki.
tad nkamaruhya papau srutam sah
stanyam tadasyam prasamiksamanah
tada tadiksavivasantara sa
sukhamburasau vijahara devi
Staring at His mother’s face, child Krsna climbed onto her lap and began to drink her breast milk. Devaki’s joy knew no bounds and she forgot herself in the ecstacy.
dadhyamatram vibha jyatna navanitam prabhaksayan
navanita viliptangoo manthanam damacaharat
Krsna then got up and broke to pieces the pot of curds that His mother was churning and started to eat the lumps of butter. In the whole confusion of stealing the butter, Krsna’s body became smeared with butter and curds. Then with a cheeky face, He snatched away the churning rod and rope from His mother.
kalamalpam vihrtyaiva makrtim tamathapyadhat
devaki cati santusta vismita cabhavanmuhuh
So after some time of playing, enacting His childhood pastimes for Mother Devaki, Krsna abandoned that form of a child, but Devaki remained spell bound, stunned in ecstacy for some time.
tadaiva bhaismi ca samiksya madhavam
punah punarnutanametada krtim
nirmapayamasa tada tadakrtim
Even Rukmini Devi, who could see the numerous forms of the Lord in Dwaraka, was quite fascinated by this ever fresh and enthralling form of this tiny, naughty child, and so she asked Krsna to give her a form like this that she could always keep with her.
Junior Admar Swami (Visvapriya Tirtha Swami) also mentioned to me another story which tells of how the Deity came about.
Lord Krsna then called for Visvakarma, the architect of the demigods, who immediately came to that place, to satisfy the desire of Rukmini Devi. Krsna then gave him instructions to go to the sacred Kali Gandaki River in Northern Nepal and secure two large Saligram Silas and from those Saligrams, fashion the transcendental forms of Krsna and Balarama.
Actually a set were also made for Devaki, though smaller, and they returned to Vrindavan with Uddhava, so records say, but have been lost due to time.
After the Deities were fashioned, the Deities were first checked by Mother Yasoda to see if Their likeness was true. Then They were presented to Rukmini Devi, who worshipped them.
janan vidambayanti sa nityam tat pratimagatam
pujayamasa vibhavaih saksat tam pujayantyapi
Rukmini began to worship those Deities with all the formalities in addition to serving Krsna as her husband and Lord in person daily.
krsnavatarevasite phalgunoo dwarakasthitam
sthapayamasa tamarcamuttamam rukminivane
And so when Lord Krsna wound up His pastimes after the accomplishment of His mission, Arjuna deposited those deities in Rukmini Vana in the place called Dvaraka.
pratimani tam samaj ajrurdaivat samyatrikah kalau
As by the Lord’s arrangement, those Deities that were buried at the advent of Kali Yuga, were unknowingly dug out and used as balast by the sailors and carried in the ship.
After the Krsna Deity was nicely washed off, Madhvacarya ordered that the deity be taken to his Mutt with great care. Alas, thirty of the strongest men in Madhva’s Mutt couldn’t even move the Deity an inch. Krsna made Himself just too heavy.
Madhva then, with great devotion, touched the Lord’s feet and with both arms, cradled the Lord and himself carried Krsna to the Mutt. Krsna would only move for Madhva. The town was alive with talk of how Madhava came to Madhva. Soon many Vaisnavas came forward to eagerly give donations to have a small temple built for the Lord.
It is said that Madhva purposely chose not to build huge gopurams like many of the temples in the south. Instead he chose the simple pagoda style, traditional to the Karnataka area. All kinds of donations were made available for building, but this simple sannyasi kept everything nice but simple, and in proportion with Chandramulesvara and Ananta-Padmanabha temples.
Acarya Madhva then performed a fabulous installation ceremony for the Lord, and inaugurated and regulated the method and formula of the worship. Even the slightest detail he took into consideration, and after conducting the pujas himself, he trained others how to worship Udupi Krsna.
To those who know something of Deity worship, and who have a little appreciation for it performed nicely, Madhva’s system and the punctuality and cleanliness is formidable.
He established sixteen pujas daily, though generally fourteen are considered as the main pujas for the Lord, which I will now outline.
(1) Nirmalaya Visarjana Puja – at 4.00 am. The door is opened and Madhva would go and take his bath is Madhva Sarovara, and after performance of different proksanas, acaman, nyasa, tilak and pranayam in the room adjacent to the actual Deity room, he would enter the shrine. Then, accompanied by the chanting of sacred mantras, the flowers, tulasi and sandalwood paste from the previous day are removed before Arundaya when the sun shows first signs of coming up. At this time he would ring the hand bell. All the ornaments are removed at this time, then one can see that first sight that Madhva saw (the churning rod in the Lord’s hand and butter in the other). Seeing the Lord at this time is known as the Visvarupa Darshan.
Then five services are performed for the Lord. Tulasi manjari buds and thick sandalwood paste are offered, and then a naivedyam (small food offering) consisting of ground nuts and curds, ginger, jaggery (date palm sugar), tender coconut, and betal leaf and nut. Then there is a mangal arati offered in a round plate.
(2) Usahkala Puja (dawn puja occurs between 4 – 6 am). Madhvacarya pours water over the deity from two silver pots and Krsna is completely washed. Again Tulasi buds and sandalwood paste are offered. Krsna is then given his naivedyam of sweet rice payasam, curds, tender coconut water, bananas, coconut, betal leaf and betal nuts.
(3) Aksaya Patra Puja and Go Puja. Madhvacarya established this principle of using the aksaya patra for mass prasadam distribution daily. This aksaya patra was originally given by Surya’s son, Vivaswan to Dharmaraja (Maharaja Yudhisthira) when he started the exile after the gambling match with Duryodhana. Whilst in exile Draupadi used it to cook for different rsis and sages. Madhva personally gave this pot and ladle for the Lord’s puja and blessed them that this annadana, mass prasadam distribution, will go on in this holy place forever.
At this time the daily go-puja is performed and the tiny local cows of Udupi-Krsna’s goshalla are led in for Krsna’s pleasure. They are given free run of the temple room and a selected cow is then formally worshiped. Following each puja there is naivedyam. This one for Gopal Krsna consists of fried rice, laddhu made of local country sugar, ‘gaur’, banana etc. First it is offered to Krsna the cowherd boy, and then his prasadam is offered to the cows. During this time the aksaya patra is also worshipped by arati ceremony, offering of lamps.
(4) Pancamrtabhiseka Puja. Madhvacarya established that first the conchshell be worshipped as Pancajanya, then five substances are poured from that conch over the Deity of Krsna. First is a conch full of pure cow’s ghee which is poured on the head of the Lord, and the golden nectar flows down to His feet. Then milk, then yogurt, then honey, then sugar water. Then pulp of banana and tender coconut water are poured over the body of the Lord. At this time thirty two tender coconuts are used to make sufficient water for the bathing, and rinsing.
After this puja, sandalwood paste, flower petals and Tulasi buds are offered. Then the Lord again takes His meal, this time or rice, coconut followed by betal leaf and betal nut. This again is followed by arati of offering lamps circulating eight times around the Lord’s body.
(5) Udvartana Puja. At this time the body of Krsna is thoroughly rubbed down by the aid of powder of green gram and hot water. This takes off any grease from the ghee or stickness of honey or sugar from the previous puja. Again after this puja is over, sandalwood paste, flowers and Tulasi buds are offered at the Lord’s feet.
After Lord Krsna has taken His hot bath then he is offered hot rice, milk, butter and tender coconut, and again arati is performed, but this time offered from a large round plate.
(6) Kalasa Puja. So to follow the hot water bath, the Kalasa Puja is done. By mantra and mudra the presiding Deities are invoked into two golden pots.
The Kalasas (pots) are then decorated and annointed with Tulasi and sandalwood paste. Then after om is chanted over the pots and the mula mantra and Krsna mantra, the kalasa is worshipped. Then the worship of the pitha (sitting place) and again naivedyam of rice is offered. Arati is again performed, and then that prasadam rice is given to the Lord’s carrier, Garudadeva.
(7) Tirtha Puja. At this time cool water from all the sacred rivers which is held in a golden pot, is poured again over the Lord. At this time Madhva would chant the Krsna Yajurveda Purusa Suktam prayers. Then all that sacred “tirtha” water is collected up and Krsna is wiped dry with fine silken cloth. Again sandalwood paste, Tulasi buds, and flowers are offered, followed by naivedyam (food offerings) of pancakes, butter, date palm jaggery, thick pongal pudding, coconut, banana, betal leafs and beyal nuts. Then eight circles with a ghee lamp make a mangal arati again.
(8) Now the darshan is prohibited, up until Tirtha puja everything is done in public, but now the Alankar Puja is performed with restricted entry and vision. At this time all kinds of fabulous ornaments are offered to the Lord. depending on the particular day, Lord Krsna dresses in a different way, sometimes as Gopal Krsna, some days Vamanadeva, Kalki, Buddha, Kurma, Rama, etc. for instance, in April-May when Matsya appeared a special dress would adorn the Lord looking like the Matsyavatara, the body at least. The face of the Lord is never covered. From day to day throughout the year the Lord wears many different costumes. Some gold, some diamonds, some rubies, pearls, etc. The only forms the Lord doesn’t dress in is Narasimha and Varaha, for to perform these pastimes His beautiful face would have to be covered by a mask, and this is never done here. On the day of Devi or the Mother Goddess, which is Fridays, Krsna takes such forms as Mohini, Sita, Rukmini, Satyabhama, and dressed in a sari gives darshana looking exquisitely beautiful.
After the Lord is appropriately dressed in the costume of the day, then His darshana is again available. As usual a nice offering of rice, pongal pudding, laddhus, flat rice, yogurt and kusumbari etc are offered, followed by sixteen waves around the Lord’s body slowly with the ghee lamp, highlighting His form.
(9) Avasara Sanakadi Puja. When Madhvacarya installed Krsna in the Udupi Mutt, the Four Kumaras, headed by Sanak Kumara, came there and expressed their desire to worship Krsna at this time. Madhva leaves the deity room and the four Kumaras worship Krsna in private. Afterwards Madhvacarya comes back into the Deity room (inner sanctum) and offers foodstuffs and arati.
Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanatkumara are the originators of the sannyasa line of the Madhva priesthood, so Madhva continued like that, only sannyasis in the eight Udupi Mutts worship Lord Krsna here in Krsna Mutt. Those sannyasis are, to this day, chosen from all the inhabitants of Udupi. Six astrologers check a new born child’s astrological chart and if there is any mention or indication of contact with woman or family life, then the candidate is rejected. Only those boys whose natal chart shows a life of celibacy, religiousity, devotion to God, purity, etc are considered as candidates for training. Then if the candidate is successful in his training, he will take sannyasa before he is seventeen years of age. One takes his order of sannyasa from a senior swami and then becomes the junior swami, usually the senior swami only has one initiated junior swami who will become his successor after he expires from this world. This is the system established in Udupi.
(10) Mahapuja (Raja Bhoga at lunch time). Mahapuja is the last puja of the morning. Before the puja again Madhva goes to the Sarovara to take his bath. Freshly bathed and annointed with fresh tilak, Madhva enters the inner sanctum. The drum known locally as Nagari is sounded to tell the town folk the puja is to begin, and everyone comes to see Madhva perform the puja.
Visnu Sahasra Nama (thousand names of Visnu) and many other Vedic hymns from the rg, Yajur, Sama and Artharva Vedas are chanted at this time. The Brhad Naradiya Purana verse Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare, Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare is also chanted. Madhva insisted that there be kirtan, the congregational chanting of the nakes of the Lord, for it is the yuga dharma.
At the end of the archanas, a huge feast is offered to the Deity of Krsna consisting of fourteen seers (one seer equals about one kilo) of rice, sweet pudding ‘paramanna’, huggi, appa, vade cakkuli, gulloorige, hoolige, atirasa, laddu, laddige, pancakajjaya, milk, yugurt, fruits, coconut, betal leaf and betal nut. (For your pleasure I have included the preparations.)
Huggi – is a savoury preparation with rice, green gram dhal, spiced with tumeric, ginger and salt, boiled in water.
Appa – is a sweet preparation made from rice flour, jaggery (date palm sugar) and plaintain fruit fried in ghee.
Vade – again is a savoury preparation prepared from toor dhal, black gram dhal and salt, rolled into little cakes and fried in coconut oil.
Cakkuli – a very nice savoury preparation made from rice and black gram dhal, roasted, ground, then the flour is made into traditional cakkuli shapes and fried in coconut oil.
Gullorige – is made from semolina and is similar to pooris, white in colour, fried in ghee.
Holige – is a sweet preparation made from Bengal gram flour, maida (white flour), date palm sugar – jaggery. All this is mixed together and flattened like a chappati. In fact it is cooked on an iron plate like a chapati.
Atirasa – This is made from rice flour, jaggery, black pepper powdered and then fried in ghee and is a wonderful sweet preparation.
Laddige – is another sweet made from paddy flour (poha-flatrice) flakes, then mixed with cardamom powder, jaggery and made into round balls.
The specialty of Udupi is Panca Kajjaya – dry coconut flower scrappings – ‘flakes of copra ‘ are then mixed with Bengal gram dhal then heated and powdered with local country sugar and spices, primarily cardamom.
Along with this there are two other preparation – a rice cake and rice kitri offered in silver bowls. During this offering ritual of samarpana reciters and musicians chant Madhva’s Dwadasa Stotram and after the Lord has taken His lunch, various musical instruments and bells are played for the Lord’s pleasure. This is a wonderful experience to witness.
After this Madhva worships the associates of Krsna such as Garuda and then Bhagirathi in an unseen form at Madhva Sarovara, then in the afternoon Madhva would sit in an adjacent room on his simhasana and have persons come and see him. Devotees who come would receive mantraksatam on their heads. Sometimes discussions would go on for an hour or so until the next puja at 4.00pm. During this time the Deity of Udupi Krsna is open for darshan (2.00pm – 4.00pm), unlike many Deities, Who, in a more relaxing and restful mood, take rest after lunch whilst the inauspicious muhuratas are prevalent. But not here in Udupi, as here Krsna is worshipped as a small boy, so at that time after lunch, small boys like to play.
At 4.30pm sharp Madhva would start his evening discourses on the Mahabharata and Ramayana. After worshipping these sacred books in the form of recitation, around 6.00pm Madhva would personally distribute prasadams to the devotees. Then whilst devotional musicians and singers would assemble in the candrasala singing songs about the Lord and His pastimes, Madhva would go for his evening bath in the sarovara tank to repare himself for Camara Seva, which is at 6.30pm. However before this there is Laxmi Puja of Krsna where Krsna is bathed in a shower (abhiseka) of pure gold coins.
(11) Camara Seva Puja. The functional (Utsava) deity of Udupi Krsna is brought out and placed before the main Deity, then the Utsava Deity is carried on a palanquin in procession to circulambulate Udupi Krsna. Baskets of fried rice are kept both sides of the Lord. Milk, fruits, coconut, betal leaf and nuts, laddus, etc are also placed before the Lord.
While this was happening, Madhvacarya would chant on his japa mala (beads) then to complete the ceremony he would come before the Lord and fan Him with gold handled camaras (yak tail whisks). One in each hand, he would fan Krsna for about five minutes, then go inside the inner sanctum and offer five upacaras (sandalwood paste, flowers and Tulasi buds, incense, lamps and foodstuffs – naivedyams). The foods consist of the fried rice and date palm sugar (jaggery) kept in the baskets.
(12) Ratri Puja (night worship). At the time of entering the deity room and after performing acamana, then Madhva would chant one hundred and eight names of Krsna and offer nice foodstuffs consisting of tamarind rice, pancakes, tender coconut, coconut pancakajjaya, then betal leaf and betal nut tambula. Then all the different kinds of arati flames would be waved before the Lord – camphor on a plate, ghee lamps, lamps with kusa grass and ghee, some of five wicks, some seven, some nine, some in the shape of the Kurma (tortoise). (The remanants of these foodstuffs are spread on banana leaves between rows of lamps and are formally offered to the Mukhya prana Deity.
(13) Mantapa Puja – Astavadhana Puja. Again the small functional, festival Deity of Krsna is brought out, and in sankirtan with the accompaniment of musical insturments the Lord goes into a cradle and in a loving mood Madhvacarya rocks the cradle. Again a nice offering of fried rice is given to the Lord as the musicians play and the devotees chant. Then the arati is performed again.
Flute seva is next as the Utsava Deity of the Lord enjoys, now in a palanquin and circulambulates the Deity room where Udupi Krsna resides. The devotees follow whilst one devotee plays the flute for the Lord’s pleasure. At this time all the devotees, according to their particular service mood, offer eight kinds of sabda seva, that is, each chants according to the proper swara or meter the mantras from each of the following to glorify the Lord, very melodiously. There is Rg Veda Seva, Yajur Veda Seva, Sama Veda Seva, Atharva Veda Seva, Vedanta Seva, Itihasa Seva, Purana Seva and San-gita Seva.
(14) Ekanta Seva – Sayanutsava Puja. This service is more of a private affair for the Lord. The small functional utsava Deity is now placed back into a cradle and is taken to and placed on a small bed in His private ‘bed room’ specifically reserved for the Lord. With the Lord in the cradle, Madhvacarya gently rocks it whilst he sings lullabies to the deity there. Such is the parental mood. The Lord now takes rest in private.
Cooked down milk, sandalwood paste, sandalwood oil, Tulasi leaves, nutmeg, cloves and fragrant perfumes are now placed before the Lord in His cradle and a final arati is performed. Then Madhva would return to his simhasana seat in the room nearby and distribute prasadam to the devotees, guests and pilgrims. This he would do until quite late, during which time he would personally strike up discussions with the assembled devotees.
The time is now after 11.00 pm, and the temple itself is now locked for the night, but as for Madhvacarya, he would talk sometimes all night, and still be the first up and about in the morning to start the pujas. When Madhvacarya slept he would only rest for one or two hours and arise fresher than those who had slept all night. Madhva would rise around 2 am to start his next day.
In this way Sripada Madhvacarya dedicated his whole life to serving the Lord, every hour of the day he was engaged in pure devotion to the Lord. As with everything that he did, it attracted the minds of everyone, and more and more devotees gathered around him.
Madhva supervised and oversaw all the activities of the new Mutt, taking an active leading role, and naturally everyone followed. His cleaning, cooking, everything was spotless. Arrangements for foot baths for pilgrims was made so as no-one would enter the temple without washing his own legs and feet.
Udupi Krsna looked out of his small temple room overlooking the Madhva Sarovara tank so He knew who had washed or not. Apparently Madhva purposely made the temple room small so that large crowds would not gather in a roudy or raucous fashion. Instead in a mood of awe and reverence, they would file in to see Krsna Who had come from Dwaraka.
Madhva insisted that the temple be washed meany times daily, and to this day one can still see the high standard that he set. Some of Madhva’s standards for cleanliness are that one must bathe at least three times daily and certainly before puja. A plunge bath in Madhva Sarovara in the waters of the Ganges was the best. After taking one’s bath and washing one’s cloth, one puts on fresh cloth. Unwashed cloth, even silk, he would not tolerate – everyday it had to be freshly washed.
Due to Madhvacarya’s need for preaching, he started to train some of his intimate disciples how to worship the Lord properly, all the little things – how to avoid touching one’s fingernails, which are to considered like dead skin, to pure pure water that is to be used in puja or for one’s own acaman, proksana-cleansing. He arranged that if some impurity was found in the disciple that he had placed in charge, the disciple had to purify it by fasting to absolve it.
MADHVA CURES FRIEND’S HEADACHE
During the time when Madhva stayed in Udupi to establish the process of Deity worship, a funny incident happened. In Madhva’s childhood there was one boy who was the son of Madhva’s teacher, who was very dear to Madhva. He once came to Madhva because he had a severe headache, and Madhva blew into his ear and cured that headache.
At this particular time this boy was making arrangements for a very large fire sacrifice, in which he planned to spend vast quantities of money, feed thousands of brahmins, and perform this yajna to a grand scale. Madhvacarya’s younger brother, who was very qualified in the conclusions of the Vedic rituals, was asked to be the hotri (officiating priest) for the yajna, to which he accepted.
The day came to start and the pandal pavillion was erected. All the preliminary pujas had been performed, all participating had been identified by the tying of Kankabandanam strings to their right wrists. Everyone, the assistants and so many brahmins who had assembled there, were just ready to perform their individual functions, when suddenly out of the air came one envious brahmin from the Jaraghatita Gotra by the name of Maradittaya, who had been festering and conspiring to spoil the yajna. It is suggested that he was a dikshitar of the smarta brahmin community and he wielded a very influential voice with people in general. Narayana Panditacarya in Madhva Vijay however refers to him as a second Jarasandha who tried to stop the rajasurya sacrifice of Yudhisthira.
As previously mentioned, the Bhavisya Purana records the meeting of Madhvacarya and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (the son of Saci) during his return to Udupi via Bengal. Madhvacarya received some very interesting points from Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The Lord gave instruction on the avoidence of animal sacrifies, pointing out in 19.49-62 that He didn’t accept the offerings of poor animals into the fire as in previous yugas, and that this was not the way to worship Him. Madhvacarya accepted this and from this time on, instigated a few changes to make the new non-violent yajna in accordance with sastra. Vast changes couldn’t have been made at this time for the philosophical evolution hadn’t progressed very far as yet (see my ‘Setting The Scene’ section). Madhvacarya performed the necessary changes that Sri Krsna Caitanya (the Personality of Godhead) told him to do.
These reforms and ceremonial changes, such as the offerings of ‘flour-made sheep’ instead of the previous live sheep of Vedic sacrifice Pishtapasuyajna. Pishtapasu Yajna never involved killing animals in previous days, but had become in vogue due to the wicked desires of meat eaters, but undoubtedly this kind of yajna was obviously what the smarta Maraditaya objected to. He wanted to offer animals into the fire and protested like anything at Madhvacarya’s method, but Madhva stood his ground as usual, and in the company of the King of the country of Balakanya and his court pandits, Madhvacarya explained from every known angle as to why the new system of yajnas should not be boycotted, but should, in fact, be supported, and how the smarta was just trying to support his own sense gratification by going directly against the injunctions of the Yuga Dharma.
According to Srimad Bhagavatam (11.28.8-9), “One who has properly understood the process of becoming firmly fixed in theoretical and realized knowledge, as described in this chapter entitled Jnana Yoga, by the Supreme Lord Himself, does not indulge in material criticism or praise. Like the sun, he wanders freely throughout this world – by direct perception, logical deduction, scriptural testimony and personal realization, one should know that this world has a beginning and an end and so is not he ultimate reality. Thus one should live in this world without attachment to sense gratification.”
The Lord has stated what kind of sacrifices are for what Yugas and even the Personality of Godhead appeared as Buddha to do away with such dramatical shows that they had the nerve to call yajnas, in the same way if God has stated that He dosen’t accept such rituals, then we may well ask, who was this yajna refered to by the materialistic smarta brahmin meant to please? If I ask for water and someone brings me milk, that person may argue that milk is very nice – but it is not what I asked for, so it cannot be considered as service, as the word service means serving that which is required by the person who has made some request.
Many arguments were presented and Madhva, and proven to all that were there, that what he was saying was right. The court pandits replied, “……..everything he says conforms to sruti, smrti, Puranas, Pancaratra, etc. He has no personal mundane motive for performing activity.”
Then the yajna continued, being sanctioned by the Balakanya King, all the pandits and local brahmins. All the local shop keepers who were previously told by the smarta to withhold certain essentials for the yajna now brought them as donations to the best of Vaisnava brahmins.
Madhva gave all the necessary instructions about karma in action, and acting in a way free from entanglement in karma himself, everyone could see that he was acting freely on the liberated platform. Madhva Vijay (9.52) confirms this by stating how everyone was completely captivated by Madhvacarya’s deep knowledge and realization of this subject. The Demigods resounded with melodious chants of – Oho vaha ho ! O how wonderous!
Madhvacarya had been in Udupi, as one can see by his achievements in the form of Sri Krsna Mutt, for quite some time, and now he decided to again go outside of Karnataka to preach, for his mission was feeling more urgent than ever.
MADHVA’S SECOND TOUR TO BADRI
Madhva Vijay is the accepted authority on the life of Madhvacarya, and although others throughout the length and bredth of Bharata Bhumi (India) made diaries at the time on the Acarya’s movements, Madhva Vijaya gives the most insight into Madhva’s life.
Taking a few notes from Indian history which points out that during Madhva’s second tour he visited many places of pilgrimage en-route to Badri. Madhvacarya and his party were quite amazing. Altogether the main party comprised of some fifty sannyasis and a number of devoted householders and brahmacaris. They travelled alone, sadhu sanga, in their association of devotees. There were no hired hands, no extravagence, just fifty simple sannyasis, a few household men, and brahmacaris.
Madhva insisted that his disciples not only preach with dynamic valour as he did, but also be expert in singing to satisfy the Lord, composing prayers for the Lord’s pleasure, dance, (for they were not dry impersonalists), and also be able to wrestle. Needless to say, Madhva had a burly build, like a bull, and all of his followers were healthy able-bodied men, but not fat.
It is suggested that on the basis of the monarchy at the time, chronologically speaking, and in regard to some of the areas that Madhva passed through and the names of Kings and kingdoms mentioned, it must have been between 1260 and 1271 that Madhvacarya made his second tour to Badri. At this time there is mention of the name of one Yadava Dynasty king in Madhva Vijay Canto 10.4-7 whose name was Iswara Deva, sometimes known as Mahadeva, and he ruled at Devagiri in the kingdom of Kandesh, now modern day Maharastra state. This king, who is known to have a strange mood of charity and was renowned for usurping the goods of others in the name of charity, still he would often plant trees, and dig wells and lakes, or rather “engage” others in that “charity work.”
When Madhva and his party came by this miserly king Iswara Deva, the king thought he could engage all these strong healthy men in digging his lake. However, when the King’s men stopped the party and told them that the King had put a toll on anyone who wished to pass through his kingdom, which was that they had to spend some time digging out the earth for the proposed lake. Madhva never missed a move, he personally convinced the King that due to their being Vaisnava ascetics, they had no idea of how to dig the ground. He said, “If your Majesty would be so kind as to enlighten us by showing each of us what to do, for we are unskilled in this work. Please show us how the digging should be done.”
The King himself, full of brainless enthusiasm jumped down into the hole and personally showed each of Madhva’s fifty men how to dig out the lake. By the sharp intellect of Madhvacarya, he tricked the King into digging out the whole section that the King had ascribed for Madhva and his men. The devotees were amazed.
Unfortunately though it cost Madhva time which really he didn’t want to waste. Madhvacarya had no business hanging around the rich or royal, aristocratic or influential circles, simply he is a devotee and only took interest in one’s devotion to the Lord. In Madhva Vijay at the end of the Ninth Canto, it points out how even obligations to family, gotra, and any other material things, Madhva gave up to satisfy Lord Hari, and so in the mood of a Vaisnava ascetic monk, he travelled quite freely without hindrance or attachment.
After leaving that place Madhvacarya and his party pushed on further north to reach the southern shore of the Ganges. During this time much of the North of India was completely ruled by the Mohamedans, though so far Madhva travelled through the Kingdoms of the pious kings of Dravidadesa (South India), but now he had reached their northern boundary. The boatmen, who in peaceful times would normally take the travellers across the river, had been given orders that no brahmins or followers of Sanatana Dharma, Vaisnavas were allowed to cross the river which was too wide to swin across and too deep to walk across. Madhva offered to pay the regular price to the boatmen, and even tried to bribe them by giving them more than the normal price. However these boatmen feared for their lives, and so no boats were available. The boatmen told Madhvacarya and his party, that the Muslim ruler on the northern bank stated that any non-Islamic traveller would face death if he so much tries to cross the river.
Hearing this Madhvacarya told his followers to hold onto his garments and form a chain. This they did, and the incarnation of, and the plenary portion of Vayu the wind god then made his whole party light enough to walk on water.
On the northern bank, the Muslim ruler came from his tent to see what all the excitement was coming from the mouths of his men. Upon seeing the party of fifty Vaisnava sannyasis walking across the surface of the Ganges river, the Muslim ruler fainted, and upon coming to, and rubbing his eyes, looking again he fainted once more. This happened seven times, for Madhvacarya and his party crossed the mighty waters of the Ganges just as the way they crossed the ocean of birth and death, which is compared to a calf’s hoofprint for the pure devotee.
Trying to deter Madhva and his party from coming ashore, the soldiers of the Muslim leader, shouting to each other to kill the infidel sannyasis before they reached shore. It was an increadible sight, the Muslimad fully armed, and turbans upon their heads, stood up to their necks deep in the Ganges, thrusting their spears in the direction of the sannyasis.
Madhva Vijay (10.11) records Madhva saying, “Certainly it is strange that all of the army has come down into the waters of the Ganges to try to stop a handful of mendicants. Why do you do this? We are of no threat to you. We are coming with a desire of meeting with your king, now allow us to pass and meet him. It is strange that you act like fools simply wishing to quarrel with us.”
Insisting on meeting with the ruling Sultan Madhwa strode towards his tent, finally amid all the niose, the Sultan came there to see what was happening. At the first sight of Madhva’s form, he was taken aback.
It is suggested in Padmanabha’s “Life and Teachings of Madhva” that the Sultan was the cousin of the notorious brahmin killer Alauddin. This somewhat peaceful Muslimad by the name of King Balban, otherwise known as Jalaludin Khiliji, who had just come to the throne at seventy years of age was not like his nefarious cousin. He was very learned and known for his kindness. When he saw Madhvacarya standing there he knew this was ordinary man. Strong and stout, with a beautiful hue of golden lustre, this giant of a man dressed in the cloth of a renounciate stood boldly before the Sultan.
The Sultan then enquired as to who this effulgent person was, and how he had walked across the wide Ganges River. “O fair faced one! How is it that you managed to pass by my ferocious army? How did you do this amazing feat of crossing the river? Why have you come here? Who are you? Why did you come across onto the soil of occupied land? Do you not know that you are risking death?”
Madhvacarya replied in chaste Turkish, saying how he was on his life’s mission to spread the glories of the almighty God to all souls who will take to it. Now you occupy this land, previously it was occupied by another and another before them. Actually we are not the proprietor of this land, we are only here for a short time and that all of us are actually servants of the actual owner of this and every other land. Every honest man should come to terms with this understanding and dedicate his life to serving God.
After but a few words coming from the lotus mouth of Madhva, the Sultan was so impressed, in fact, he was charmed. Just like a tantric snake charmer standing amidst a thousand or more dangerous snakes, Madhvacarya fearlessly stood amidst the Muslimad army and preached this philosophy of Krsna consciousness to the Sultan, Jalaluddin Khilji. Confident that he was under the protection of Lord Krsna, Madhva had no need to fear. Tantrics, we have seen, sometimes sit amidst hundreds of cobras or scorpions without being poisoned due to the potency of their mantra siddhi or tantra siddhi, but in the case of our hero, it was his devotion to the Lord.
Just for the record, Madhvacarya’s incantation was nuch stronger than any mechanical materialistic ritual, his purity, faith and natural compassion shone through. He was not talking to an oppressing war-lord, rather Madhva was talking to a spirit soul who now in the dress of a Muslim Sultan, could be engaged in the service of the Lord.
At this time the Sultan, realizing his mistake in hindering their travels, offered Madhva half of his province and told him that he would also make sure that Madhva and his party had safe passage through the rest of his territory on his travels north.
THE PROWESS OF MADHVA
Defeating the Dacoits
Certainly these were troubled times. There were many such war-lords and many dacoits, thuggies, gundas, etc. who waited on the roads and byways for unsuspecting travellers. Many times Madhva and his party would travel through thick jungle and via mountain ranges to directly and quickly keep heading true north.
One day as they travelled through the jungle, Madhva saw a group of thieves coming in the opposite. Madhva told his party to stay still – he had a plan. Usually when travellers saw gangs of dacoits they were petrified and would soon become easy pickings for the proffessional theives and murderers. Madhva, now putting his plan into action, took a handful of stones and put them into a piece of cloth, and when the thieves approached and declared their intent, Madhva threw to one of the dacoits the bundle wrapped in cloth the result was chaos, one thief not being able to trust another due to their mutual greed. This action of Madhva caused the dacoits to start fighting amongst themselves. Lusty and greedy, they tried to fulfill their desire to gain the ‘bag of gold’, as one took it from another and another snatched it from a third, amidst the confusion Madhva and party slipped off unnoticed.
Lust for gold and material possessions of others had brought them all together by mutual agreement, but it was a shallow working agreement with no sincerity, and it was also their downfall.
Madhva and party looked back from a safe distance before continuing the journey.
On another occasion as the party travelled along, they were apprehended by more than one hundred dacoits. From an external mundane view point, things looked very dangerous for Madhva and his fifty man party of peaceful ascetics monks. The air was very tense, one could say it could be cut with a knife. Suddenly out of nowhere one of Madhva’s disciples, young boy Upendra Tirtha, rushed forward and wrestled a sword from the leader of the dacoits. Upendra Tirtha fought with the skill and courage of an experienced swordsman, though in his whole life he had never picked up so much as a stick, what to speak of a sword. The robbers, those who had not been killed or dismembered by the valiant Upendra Tirtha, fled for their lives.
Everyone of his godbrothers complimented him for his bravery. Madhva smiled knowingly, and Upendra humbly smiled, looking at Madhva. He had empowered his disciple to such a degree that all one hundred or more dacoits were no match for the humble Vaisnava sannyasi who suddenly had assumed the mood of Bhimasena. The tattva of Mukhyaprana had taken possession of the young sannyasis’ arms and instead of Upendra Tirtha’s arms, it was the mighty Bhima who fought to the dacoits death.
There was another occasion when another group of thieves lay in wait for Madhva and his party. The theives could see the party coming down the road, and so they waited in hiding, preparing their attack. As they lay in wait watching the ascetics approach, suddenly all of ascetics turned to a group of stones right before their eyes. Then as boulders the party started to move down the road towards the dacoits.
With fear and disbelief in their hearts, their minds confused and rubbing their eyes again and again, the theives watched the party of ascetics turn back into men. This was all too much for the theives. They knew somewhere unside these were not ordinary persons, and so in a more than humble mood, giving up their previous intent, they approached the party.
Madhvacarya, the guru, stood self-effulgent at the head of the party. The dacoits prostrated themselves at Madhva’s feet and sincerely begged forgiveness for even thinking of such offensive things as robbing Vaisnava brahmins. Neddless to say, the dacoits of late turned over a new leaf by the influence of Acarya Madhva.
Whilst travelling through the thickest of Himalayan jungles one of the party, Satya Tirtha, a very dear and devoted disciples of Madhvacarya, was brutally attacked by a demon in the shape of a tiger, a huge and powerful beast nine feet long and weighing some 300 hundred kilos. The tiger leapt from the undergrowth onto poor Satya Tirtha as he led the party through the jungle. Trapping Satya Tirtha in his powerful jaws, and about to carry him off to a distant place to devour his body, Satya Tirtha, in a state of shock, suddenly felt the tiger collapse and found himself free from death’s grip.
Madhvacarya had seen the attack, and with the speed of the wind, with a single thunderbolt like punch killed the tiger dead on the spot. He then released Satya Tirtha from the jaws of the huge male tiger. Satya Tirtha was in such a state of shock it took quite some time for him to realize that he was now safe, even though the Lord’s holy name was on his tongue he didn’t know if he was live or dead. The whole time he was absorbed internally in the holy name of the Lord, even up to when his mauled body was rescued by his ever loving guru.
SatyaTirtha was so grateful to the Lord of his his life, his guru, Madhvacarya, that this made him even more inspearable and devoted than ever before. He prayed for the boon that from that day on he never be separated from Sripada Madhvacarya.
After walking another couple of days or so, the peaks of the western Himalayas came into sight. The party pushed on to reach Badri high in the western Himalayas. After reaching Badri Madhva left his disciples there and crossed the ice-barrier to enter into Uttara Badri again to see his guru. Madhva felt ecstacy as he drew nearer and nearer to Vyasadeva’s asrama, then as he reached that place he saw Srila Vyasadeva sitting beneath a Badri tree surrounded by many disciples.
Madhva stayed there for some time in his absorbtion of being with Vyasadeva at Uttari Badri. He nearly forgot about life on the lowlands of Bharata Bhumi. Madhvacarya was now in his natural constitutional position, settled at home in his guru Srila Vyasadeva’s asrama.
During this visit to Uttara Badri Srila Vyasadeva appointed Madhva with the task of explaining the essential meanings of the Mahabharata. This great epic, dealing with the the battle between the two royal familes, the Pandavas and the Kauravas, is considered the fifth Veda and an essential scripture as there are so many good examples and instructions to come from it.
Madhva, on the authorization of Srila Vyasadeva, points out in his Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya, (2.3.6) that much of the original texts had now fallen prey to others interpolations, missing out some important meanings, so now Madhva had been given the task to re-establish Mahabharata as it is. Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya is in thirty two chapters, following the Mahabharata with constructive critique of Madhva. The first two chapters deal with Madhva’s exposition of the philosophy and the poltics of the Mahabharata, as well as Madhva’s appearance, mission, dwaita philosophy, etc. Chapters three to nine are devoted to a critical summary of the Ramayana, explaining from Mukhyaprana’s (Hanuman and Madhva’s) point of view of how Rama and Sita were and are all-perfect, and that any seemingly compromises that one may see, such as Rama’s lamenting or the pastime of not trusting Sita, were just a dramatical play on Rama’s part to invoke the emotions of His devotees. Also Madhva introduces an incident, the encouter of Parasurama and a demon called Atula, and elaborates on the pastime unknown by most. Madhva as usual quotes many authorities to substantiate his statements. Chapters ten to thirtytwo one finds the actual story of the Mahabharata, elaborately dealt with following Madhva’s critique ‘I was there – I know’ kind of mood.
This great work of Madhva closes with his comments about the advent of Kali Yuga being the door opening for the rise of the philosophies of Buddhism, Jainism and Mayavada, and that now he himself had come to set things right. This is where Madhva himself mentions his own advent, putting the date as 4300 Kali Yuga, which corresponds to 1199 AD. Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya (32.13) and Chapter 9.100 also confirms this using the same reference.
Madhvacarya stayed for some time in the Vaikuntha atmosphere of Vyasadeva’s asrama, studying, gaining further realizations at the lotus feet of Badarayana. Srila Vyasadeva then gently reminded his best of disciples, who was going from strength to greater strength, and though his body was growing older, for him it increased his lustre with a mystic maturity, dignity and grace.
Madhva bounded down into the foothills and onto the plains of Northern India. Surely he is not a mere mortal! He took his disciples to Hastinapura and showed them the sights of the political intrigue of the Pandava-Kaurava war, telling stories in places which again only a Pandava would know, inside stories about Bhima’s escapades, lifting and fighting bull elephants, and other feats of valour. They stayed in Hastinapura (Delhi) for the four months of the rainy season of that year.
Madhvacarya purposely stayed away from the crowded banks of the river, however news spread like an uncontrolled wild fire that Madhva Muni was staying in Hastinapura with his party of men, and many a pious soul came to visit him.
On one occasion whilst the ‘Ganges’ was in flood, Madhva’s disciples wanted to cross to the other bank, but due to crowds of people there were no sufficient boats to transport the sannyasis across. Knowing Madhva’s superhuman powers, the disciples neglected the tradition and this time they neither remembered Hanuman who jumped across to Lanka, nor Bhima who just for fun would swim the mighty ‘Ganges’ and play in her waters. Instead they remembered Madhva, who is of that same nature as Anjaneya (Hanuman) and Bhima.
All the disciples were waiting and waiting intently thinking of their guru to come there and help. Just before sunset on that day Madhva returned to them from his studies and in front of everyone’s eyes, the acarya collected all the sannyasis together as before, and they all walked across the flooded turbulent waters of the holy river. Everyone who was there was astounded. The King, the local people, the pilgrims, the fishermen and the boatmen all saw the fifty man party headed by the plenary portion of the wind god – Vayu – casually walk on the surface of the water as though it were a footpath, that is without their clothing becoming so much as damp, what to speak of wet, they safely crossed to the other bank.
The King and all the others assembled offered obeisances in a respectful and wonder-struck atmosphere. Madhva then at this place on the bank of the sacred river gave discourses on his Mahabharata Tatparya-Nirnaya, giving personal insight into the activities that happened some four thousand years before in that same place of Hastinapura.
As Madhva glorified Lord Sri Krsna, the Pandavas and that place of Hastina, Mother Ganges herself appeared before the sannyasi acarya, Madhva in her personified form with folded hands and head bowed slightly forward in respect. For those whose eyes are bound to the happenings of this material world the only visible thing to be seen was a small pool of pure Gangajal bubbling just in front of Madhvacarya’s lotus feet. For Madhva and a few others who had spiritual vision, they could see the chaste Mother Ganges personified standing with folded hands, head looking down at Madhva’s feet, with her hair parted in the centre and chastely braided at the back, her head covered so as not to entice. She just had to come to offer her respects to the empowered representative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsna, from Whose feet Gangadevi herself gets her purificatory powers. Madhva himself carries Lord Krsna’s lotus feet by means of his mind, body and words, and gives them to everyone through his pure philosophy, in this way he is a walking place of pilgrimage.
It was just after this that Madhvacarya bid Ganga Mayi her leave, after firmly propounding the Vaisnava conclusions, namely who is God, and what our relationship is with Him and how to attain that etc. They then left Hastinapura, and the party walked along the course of the Ganges, visiting many holy places until they reached Benares. Benares (or Kasi, as it is refered to in Madhva Vijay 10.37) was a great Mayavadi stronghold.
Madhva had a light playful mood at this time, but non compromising, seeing time for a challenge, he put his disciples on the spot. Sometimes he would hear them say a little boastfully of what physical feats they could perform, their wrestling prowess.
Madhva Vijay (10.38) says, “You who consider yourselves able, come and fight with me. Don’t hold back your strength out of some sentimental affection. It is not befitting our renounced order.” With these words Madhva dragged to the floor fifteen of his most able bodied men. “Come on, get up. Let’s see who has some ability to fight then.” he said, laughing loudly. His disciples couldn’t do anything out of sentiment, so Madhva got them off the sentimental plane by his physical prowess, but now the defeated disciples fearfully begged the acarya as follows:
“Our dear spiritual master, please don’t attack us again. we are no match for you. even your fingers, what to speak of your arms are like the heaviness of Mount Meru. You have practically killed us all in but a few seconds. Please be kind to us and forgive our false pride and leave us alone.”
Madhva and party stayed for quite some time in benares quite frequently smashing the impersonalistic philosophies that riddled this town. On one such occasion an Advaitin monk of the name Amarendra Puri came to challenge Madhva with the statement, “Can you show how karma or activity that is supported by knowledge can give one salvation, what is your explanation of this?”
Madhva threw one question back to the Mayavadi: “If you supposedly have knowledge then surely this subject would be understood by you – if not, the question does no arise nor does liberation, for by negation of activity, as your school does, you will still keep yourselves soundly entangled in the material world. Anyway, seeing that you have asked, in Bhagavad-gita (4.14) Lord Sri Krsna says,
na mam karmani limpanti
na me karma-phale sprha
iti mam yo ‘bhijanati
karmabhir na sa badhyate
“There is no work that affects me (Krsna); nor do I (Krsna) aspire for the fruits of action. One who understands this truth about Me (Krsna) also does not become entangled in the fruitive reactions of work.”
evam jnatva krtam karma
purvair adi mumuksubhih
kuru karmaiva tasmat tvam
purvaih purvataram krtam
“All the liberated souls in ancient times acted with this understanding of My (Krsna’s) transcendental nature. Therefore you should perform your duty, following in their footsteps.”
kim karma kim akarmeti
kavayo ‘py atra mohitah
tat te karma pravaksyami
yaj jnatva moksyase ‘subhat
“Even the intelligent are bewildered in determining what is action and what is inaction. Now I shall explain (Krsna says) to you what action is, knowing which you shall be liberated from all misfortune.”
karmano hy api boddhavyam
boddhavyam ca vikarmanah
akarmanas ca buddhavyam
gahana karmano gatih
“The intricacies of action are very hard to understand. Therefore one should know properly what action is, what forbidden action is, and what inaction is.”
karmany akarma yah pasyed
akarmani ca karma yah
sa buddhiman manusyesu
sa yuktah krtsna-karma krt
“One who sees inaction in action, and action in inaction, is intelligent among men, and he is in the transcendental position, although engaged in all sorts of activities.”
yasya sarve samarambhah
jnanagni dagdha karmanam
tam ahuh panditam budhah
“One is understood to be in full knowledge whose every endeavour is devoid of desire for sense gratification. He is said by sages to be a worker for whom the reactions of work have been burned up by the fire of perfect knowledge.”
If one is serious about liberation from material bondage, one has to understand the distinctions between action, inaction, and unauthorized actions. One has to apply oneself to such an analysis of action, reaction and perverted actions because it is a very difficult subject matter to understand. One who has learned this perfectly serves Lord Sri Krsna with mind, body and world, and in that way associates with the Lord directly. Otherwise even the most intelligent will be bewildered.
brahmarpanam brahma havir
brahmagnau brahmana hutam
brahmaiva tena gantavyam
“A person who is fully absorbed in Krsna consciousness is sure to attain the spiritual kingdom (Vaikuntha or Goloka) because of his full contribution to spiritual activities, in which the consummation is absolute and that which is offered is of that same spiritual nature.”
Just as for one who is suffering from a disease of the bowels due to an over indulgence in milk products, so the disease is easily cured by taking another milk product, curds (yogurt).
So in the same way Lord Sri Krsna is completely spiritual and the rays of His transcendental body are called the Brahmajyoti, Krsna’s own spiritual effulgence. Everything that exists is situated in that Brahmajyoti, but it is temporarily covered by a material cloud which is pertaining to material sense gratification.
When that cloud is removed by acting in full Krsna consciousness one comes to the liberated stage, but not to become one with the effulgence or the owner of the effulgence. Instead the devotee, the Vaisnava, surrenders himself to being one with the Lord’s desire or will whilst still remaining an individual.
In that way understanding what is Brahman, but knowing difference, one satisfies the Supreme Lord by the sacrifice of those activities.
In yajna it is considered that the fire is Brahma, the offering is also Brahman and the offerer, the hotri is also Brahman, but it is not that of exclusive oneness. For by the strange philosophy of Kevaladvaita – exclusive oneness, if one pours the ghee and grains onto the hotri (the priest) or puts the hotri into the fire, the same result will not be achieved as if the hotri pours the ghee and grains into the fire-brahman.
Differences are there. Knowing this, all kinds of activities performed for the Lord’s service can bepurified by one in actual spiritual consciousness.
Spiritual consciousness which is aligned with the Lord, the contributor who is a devotee of the Lord, the contribution which originally is the Lord’s potency anyway and is now properly re-united with the Lord, the consumption thereof by the Lord and distribution of His remnants or utilization of facilities for Him, the priest who conducts the procedure and the result, Krsna consciousness, in all there differences are one with the Lord the Param Brahman or Supreme Personality of Godhead.
In ways like this Madhvacarya completely set Kasi alight as Hanuman set fire to Lanka roaming the city freely. He samshed all the objectives of Mayavada philosophy and re-established Lord Krsna or Narayan to be supreme.
eko vai narayana
asin na brahma na
isano napo nagni-
samau neme dyav-aprthivi
na naksatrani na suryah
In the beginning of the creation there was only the Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayan. There was no Brahma, no Siva, no fire, no moon, no stars in the sky, no sun.
Maha Upanisad 1
Madhva left no stone unturned. Stating how the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Sri Narayana actually creates, maintains and destroys the entire creation and permiates it also in the form of Paramatma. Actually Narayana is the original Personality. He was there before everyone.
Narayan Upanisad 1 states,
atha puruso ha vai
narayano ‘kamayata prajah srjeti
narayanad brahma jayate
narayanad prajapatih prajayate
narayanad indro jayate
narayanad astau vasavo jayate
narayanad ekadasa rudra jayante
“Then the Supreme Personality Narayana desired to manifest living entities. From Narayan Brahma is born, and from Narayan the patriarchs are also born. From narayana Indra is born, from Narayana the eight Vasus are born, from Narayana the eleven Rudras are aborn, and from Narayana the twelve Adityas are born.”
He is the original, the Adi Purusa, He is superior without an equal and has a spiritual form made of eternity, and bliss and He is all knowing.
Madhva, established the authority of the Lord second to none and equal to none, from every possible angle, we are small dependant jiva souls and Narayana is the omnicient, independnt omnipotent Supreme Soul.
Hearing this the small soul Amarendra Puri, who was thinking himself big soul, had to concede to being an insignificant tiny jiva soul at the feet of the servant of the greatest soul, Narayana. Not being able to refute Madhva’s strong stand the follower of the school destined for hellish suffering due to their offences, had to concede ultimate defeat.
In Hrsikesa (Rsikesha) a Sankarite surprised everyone with his hospitality and friendly and respectful ways towards Madhva. Not only did he bring alms for the acarya, but also insisted that Madhva eat at his house and thus purify him and his family. He greeted Madhva with full kumbha ceremony and offered all respects. Indeed this was very unusual for a follower of Sankara in Hrsikesa (Rsikesha).
Actually this Saivite had a dream, and it was made clear to him that this Madhvacarya was not an ordinary person but was the protector of the Vedas and direct representative of God. He then gave up his old Saivite ways and also became a follower of Acarya Madhva.
From Hrsikesa, Madhva and his party went to the holy place of pilgrimage known as Kuruksetra. At this place Madhva unmistakably proved himself to be the amsa of Vayu who previously appeared as Bhimasena and who fought like a thousand men at that same sacred place of Kuruksetra.
Madhvacarya took Satyatirtha and the others to the many places that Bhima had his valiant pastimes. Going to all the different places around Kuruksetra Jyoti Tirtha, the lakes created by Parasurama, the place where Bhisma gave up his life, etc. Madhva however showed a special insight into those places of the pastimes of Bhimasena the powerful club wielding Pandava.
Satyatirtha asked Madhva is he knew where Bhima’s club was, to which Madhva said, “Dig there and it will be revealed.” After digging for quite some time, some five or seven feet, they came across the club. None could lift it, save and except Madhva, who carried it with comfrot and familiar ease. Madhva then ordered that it be replaced back into the ground and recovered over. This they did and there it stays.
Madhva revealed many places known by him that were used in previous times by Bhima, including Bhima’s eating plate, and the place where Duryodhana was finally killed. Only Bhima could know these exact places, only the tattva of Mukhyaprana that is.
From Kuruksetra the party headed south again, ceasing their wanderings in the north. After many days walking they reached Isupata Ksetra which in the region given to Lord Parasurama. At that place Madhva meditated on Lord Narayana, the husband of the Goddess of Fortune in the form of Parasurama.
This whole area, from modern day Nasik in Maharastra down to the most southern tip on the western penninsular of Bharata (India) was given to Lord Parasuram by Kasyapa Muni, and so there are many places of pilgrimage in this area. Madhva felt very at home in the Parasurama Ksetra worshipping his Lord there.
From there Madhva pushed on to Goa, and in Goa an amazing feat was witnessed by all. One local king came and presented Madhva with one thousand rajakeli bananas. A rajakeli banana is a plaintain, these were normal full sized ripe rajakeli plaintains, each one and a half feet in length and ten inches in circumference. Actually they were given in a light joking mood hearing of Madhva’s gastronomic reputation. But now Madhva even surprised those who joked by eating all one thousand plaintains without so much as having a full belly.
Again in Goa a short time later it is recorded in Madhva Vijay 10.52, that a brahmin named Sankara brought as an offering to Madhva four thousand big lustrous and juicy plaintains and also thirty gallons of milk. Madhva ate the four thousand plaintains and unceremoniously washed them down with the thirty gallons of milk. From time to time Madhva liked to do things like this just to leave the mark of his wonderous pastimes on a place.
Sometimes due to these extraordinary feats some persons would become very envious, in one such incident one rascal went to the ruler of this part of Goa and complained about Madhva, his party, and his feats. The ruler sent his men to arrest Madhva and his party, but as usual Madhva was always one step ahead. Right before everyone’s eyes Madhva disappeared with all his party minutes before the hostile soldiers arrived to arrest them. The ruler gave up on the idea right there and then, knowing well he could not restrain the wind.
Madhva and his party reappeared at their camp, but soon left that place to go further south.
At the place known as Pasupa (Bajapey) local people requested Madhvacarya to sing, as they had heard stories saying that the acarya’s singing could do unusal things to those who had the good fortune of hearing it. By Madhva’s purity of chanting the holy names of the Lord, it was rumoured animals and humans would forget their bodily differences and would dance and chant together. There were all kinds of stories where men would embrace tigers, elephants would embrace tigers, etc, completely forgetting that under normal conditions one would be food for the other. During the times when Madhva would recite of chant or touch someone, those objects or persons in the vicintiy would become transcendentally transformed by the pure spiritual potency of Sripad Madhvacarya Bhagavatapada.
Just like on this one occasion at Pasupa, in the assembly of hundred of people, he took a few seeds in the palm of his hand and began to sing melodiously to them. His singing was magical, hypnotic with a range that no mundane songster could even imagine, what to speak of imitate.
Just as when Lord sri Krsna would play His flute the Gopis would completely forget themselves, their husbands, housework, crying babies whom they were feeding, and they would just go to Krsna, so in the same way, depending on what he wanted to do, different things would react in different ways, reciprocating with him. Like these seeds in Madhva’s hand – as he sung to them they started to move about in his hand. As the singing became more intense everyone could see little sprouts emanating from each seed. right before their eyes they saw the seeds sprout, grow into trees, and bear fruit.
Defying all laws of material nature, Madhva appealed to the spirit soul within each and every body, be it plant, bird, mammal, animal or human.
Madhvacarya amazed the crowd, who were more than satisfied by the way that he had confirmed the stories they had heard, as being true.
Madhva and his party of sannyasis then left that place for the short journey back to Udupi. Everyone was so pleased to see the party back after so long.
Madhva Vijay closes Canto 10 verse 56 saying how Madhvacarya and his disciples filled and nourished the people of Udupi with stories of their adventures with the acarya over the last year or so. Narayana Panditacarya who was in Udupi at this time, desribes the people as being dried trees that were waiting for these refreshing, long awaited rains in the form of the incredible pastimes of Madhvacarya, to pour upon their thirsty ears. Having received these pastimes began to show new sprouts of life in the form of happiness and satisfaction.
So much so did the local people love Madhvacarya that the tumultuous sound of their welcome was like thunder, and he himself was like lightning and the refreshing and stimulating rains gave the needed releif, like those oh so welcoming first rains of monsoon after a long hot dry summer.
The Eleventh Canto of Madhva Vijay tells of the fruits of the result of becoming fixed in the conclusions of Madhvacarya, how by always remembreing the Lord one can obtain to the realm of Vaikuntha. There are also elaborate desriptions of Vaikuntha and how one resides there in a body made of eternality, youthfulness, always happy and free from the miseries of birth, death, old age and disease of this material world.
Even there are desriptions of loving exchanges which are free from bodily defects such as lust, anger, greed, quarrels, etc in as much as there is no jealousy between persons, the feelings even between co-wives of a husband are harmonious, everyone is serving the Lord and His eternal associates constantly.
That Lord Narayana is elaborately desribed as being the most perfect and oppulent person, surrounded by assistants who are non-envious and always ready to serve Him at any moment. Even those residents of Vaikuntha, they are also always willing to serve each other and are free from duplicity, and other material defects, etc.
Those who are eligible to see the Lord’s form see Him as having endless forms, some with the lustre of gold, some with the lustre of rubies, another the lustre of newly risen sun, another may have a blue complexion like a sapphire and another mixed, such as tawny green. Another is the form of bliss and knowledge with the fragrance of an indescribable natural nectarean aroma and all good qualities.
His face in all these forms makes the moon look faulty (having sixteen phases or kalas), His eyes are as wide as a pink lotus, and His lips are so pleasing for the devotees to see.
His neck has three lines like the creases inside a beautiful conchshell, and His neck is adorned with the kaustubha mani which is as lusterous as the sun. Also adorning His neck are the finest natural white pearls. On His arms He has an excellent golden armulet studded with priceless gems. The bangles on His wrists are beyond compare.
In each of His hands He has a different natural weapon – the Sudarsana disc, as effulgent as a group of suns, a pure white conch that resembles the disc shape of the moon on the Purnima (full moon night). In another hand He holds the lotus, in another He holds His mace (kaumodaki) that shines like fire. The bow of the name Sarnga which keeps all ghosts and demons far away from Vaikuntha resides in another hand, and another hand bestows blessings. His hand is soft, round, and broad, the palm is tinged with red hue.
Between the broad and robust shoulders on the Lord’s chest is where the goddess of fortune, Laxmi Devi, makes her residence in the jewel mandapam made especially for her.
The Lord’s small belly which is praised by Lord Brahma in the form of a bumble bee, contains the fourteen worlds in it’s deep lotus navel. Oh how auspicious Lord Narayana is.
His dhoti of yellow silken cloth that shines like gold, is adorned at the top by a highly decorative girdle. This all auspicious covering has beneath it two thighs that resemble the trunks of well proportioned celestial elephants, that are round with delightful knees.
Lord Narayana reveals His person to His devotees and rarely to others. He has fingers with nails that resemble the lustre of a new pearl.
His lotus feet are the residence of the devotees prayers, and I offer my obeisances at those lotus feet.
PADMATIRTHA, PUNDARIKA PURI AND OTHER FOLLOWERS OF SANKARACARYA DEFEATED
Previously on Madhvacarya’s tour of the south he had continuous conflict with the head of the Mayavadi Sringeri Mutt of the name Vidyasankara. Due to very unfortunate circumstances those persons, the follwers of Vidyasankara, who were poorly realized in transcendental matters and after the demise of their leader and guide, Vidyasankara appointed Padmatirtha as the next in line. Though he had studied well and could repeat the philosophy of the Sankaracarya he was really just a puppet, a legislative replacement to fulfill the needs of those follwers of Sankara who had other plans. The original Adi Sankara, the incarnation of Lord Siva, stated once to one of his follwers that persons who had other motives, material desires to fulfill in this world would lake to living as ascetics to attain their needs. Seeing these things now present, these envious persons, full of lust, envy and greed, planned to present Padmatirtha who actually was, to some degree, quite innocent, as their representitive. These situations may survive for a short time amongst the cheats and cheated but soon they were to be put to the test.
Padmatirtha was one of the foremost disciples of Vidya Sankara who held office between Vidya Sankara and Vidyaranya. But now, pushed forward by his follwers, Padmatirtha was urged to seek revenge on behalf of Vidya Sankara who was defeated in Travancore, Trivandrum, Ramesvaram, etc, by Madhvacarya.
The Mayavadis of Sringeri were so envious of Madhva that they all combined together to stir up the naturally envious nature of the Sankarite Padmatirtha. Though he was now their guru, they taunted him in such a way, suggesting that due to Madhvacarya’s fame and reputation Padmatirtha had become a coward. In the meantime another follower of Padmatirtha by the name Kasta, who was a reputed half-wit but who was extremely proud of what little learning he did have, tried to challenge Madhva. Kasta then in a loud manner, advertised the plan of the Sankarites to send of deligation headed by Padmatirtha to attack Madhvacarya.
They were actually so envious due to their lacking of sound philosophical arguments that they tried all kinds of underhanded means such as departments of tantra. This tantra sastra, which is really the property of Sukracarya the guru of the demons, was now being employed against Madhvacarya and his saintly follwers. Employing tantrics that are opposed to the priests following Brhaspati, the priest of the demigods this was how low they got. Padmatirtha’s men used Vasikarana to try to physically put Madhva under their control. They tried istambhana to try to paralize him physically, vidvesana mantras to create opposition or anger in members on the camp of Madhwa, causing animosity and divided interests. They tried uchchatan to disturb the mental equilibrium of Madhva and his men, and put fear and uncertainty and delusion in their hearts. But when none of the above tantras worked, they tried maran mantras to kill them. By the purity of Acarya Madhva, he repelled all the tantric curses as a lotus sheds the water of a pond without even so much as a second thought.
Instead of these material tactics of tantra causing problems for him, Madhvacarya was becoming more and more popular by the second, the Sankaraites decided to try to politically put a stop to Madhva and his philosophy of dwiatavada.
Any brahmin who was found to have any learning toward dualism was ostracised from society as an outcaste. So in this way those envious persons, evious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the first case, and envious of His devotees and the philosophy which glorifies both in the second case, tried all manner of devious means to discredit those who followed Madhva.
Sri Madhva Vijay desribes one of the collegues of Padmatirtha by the name Pundarika Puri as being like a dog, who by nature goes to dirty places and rummages through the dirt only to invite the lion to lunch, or who is like a mucus eating crow who has only one eye, yet invites a pure white swan to associate. This cunning jackal further more is compared to a small fire fly, small and weak, with an inconsistant mind, about to be burned in the fire.
Philosophically speaking, how could the philosophy of avidya (ignorance) hope to defeat the philosophy of vidya (knowledge)? Madhva states, “How can the Vedic scriptures declare all but Brahman to be unreal? A Sruti declaring all but Brahman to be unreal thereby declares itself to be unreal and inacceptable.”
The campaign of harassment was all very stratigically worked out by the Mayavadis. Leaving the dirty work to the foolish uneducated common folk, Pundarika Puri and Padmatirtha set out for Udupi to challenge Madhva. When they arrived they made themselves known to Madhva’s party and immediately put forward a challenge to Madhva who was then in ecstacy. The plenary portion of Vayu, Sri Mukhya Prana, Acarya Madhva never ever turned down an opportunity to purify the atmosphere of bad air.
News spread like wild fire and soon all the local brahmins had assembled to witness the coming debate. Some came to substantiate their own Vedic learning, and some came out of curiousty, being innocent and who had studied the Vedas in an adwiatin-monistic way, and now they wanted to hear of an alternative. Pundarika Puri who was considered very learned was to be the challenger. He chose his favourite Rg Veda as the means to present his all one philosophy of ignorance (avidya).
Madhva, as the defender, started to explain each and every syllable and word in relation to the Supreme Lord, His devotees, and thier qualities. Madhvacarya presented Lord Narayana as being the Supreme Creator, one without a second, Who has a host of demigods like Brahma, Siva, Ganesa, etc. always ready to serve His lotus feet.
Lord Narayana is also the creator of the Pancabhutas, Akasa (sky). Vayu (air), Agni (fire), jal (water, prithivi (earth) and it’s numerous combinations throughout the millions of universes that He creates simply by His breathing. Then by His guna avatars, Brahma, Visnu and Mahesha (Siva), He further creates, maintains and destroys.
Madhvacarya then substantiated this by further using his vast knowledge of Vyakarana (grammar) and roots in words, pronounciation etc as mentioned in the Vedic literatures.
Madhva proved himself skilful at using the devanagari (sanksrit alphabet) to substantiate that the Supreme Persoanlity of Godhead is that transcendentally mischevious child who played in the area of Mathura with His cowherd friends, and was bound by ropes of love by His mother after she ran after Him. Lord Sri Krsna, Who in the form of a cowherd boy sported with the gopis in the forests of Vrindavan etc. He alone is the Supreme Absolute Truth. (Madhva Vijay 12.32)
Madhvacarya’s whole mood was to solely establish the Supreme Personality of Godhead to be supremely different from all other souls in the three worlds. His explanations are refered to in Madhva Vijay as being as beautiful as Draupadi who charmed everyone that dared to come to try to win her hand at the swayamvara. Her delicate steps and charming voice won every heart in that swayamvara hall. Now Acarya Madhva, by means of definition of different padas (steps) of mantras, instructed the assembly clearly the proper mood (vyavahita) as well as meaning to each verse of the Rg Veda.
Obviously Madhva’s learning and eradition was far beyond that of the would-be scholar Pundarika Puri. Every brahmin in the assembly praised Madhva as being empowered by Sarasvati, Garuda and Brhaspati, the servants of the Lord who bless one with prolific speech. Then Madhva was compared to Caturmukha Brahma, the Vedas emanating from his four mouths and definitely he is his pure representative of the Brahma Sampradaya.
Everyone was now waiting to see the reaction from Pundarika Puri, who was obviously defeated before he had even started. However Pundarika was too proud and would not concede defeat. he opened his mouth and then proceded to show everyone just how unqualified he was to challenge the pure empowered Vaisnava devotee of the Lord.
Breaking up the sylabells of the first sukta of Rg Veda in the wrong place he made a mockery of the sanskrit verse as well as himself. Under the cover of night, vindictive and in shame, the mayavadis all left Udupi, but before they left that night the seething Pundarika Puri, Padmatirtha and many other sankarites went to Madhvacarya’s library to cause some mischeif.
The next morning the Vaisnava brahmin of the name Samkaracarya, who was Sripad Madhvacarya’s librarian, approached Madhva with a deathly blank look on his face. he had bad news to report – Someone had stollen all of the books from Madhwacarya’s library!
The poor boy Samkaracarya took the initial brunt of Madhva’s fury. Over the last few years Madhvacarya worked on many books including his bhasyas on the following Upanisads – Aitareya, Taithiriya, Brhadaranyak, Isa, Katha, Chandogya, Mundaka, Mandukya, Satprasna and Kena. He also wrote two other bhasyas on the Brahma Sutras, Anuvyakhyana and Anubhasya in thirty two verses as well as his ten prakaranas – Karma Nirnaya, Pramana Laksana, Kathalaksana, Upadhikhandana, Tattwodyota, Visnu-Tattva Vinirnaya, Mayavadakhandana, Prapancamithyat-vanumana-Khandana, Tattva Samkhyana and Tattva Viveka, as well as his Bhagavat Tat Parya, Gita Tat Parya, Mahabharata Tat Parya, and Yamaka Bharata, Sadacara Smriti, and Krsna Jayanti Kalpa (Nirnaya).
But now they had all been stolen!
Narayana Panditacarya describes Madhva and his library as being like the sun god riding across the sky on his chariot drawn by seven horses: that is Madhva who like the sun dispells the darkness of ignorance when he comes into the vicinity and his chariot is compared to his library which is drawn by seven worses which are the four Vedas (Rg, Yajur, Sama and Artharva), Mula Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Pancaratra, which reveals the form of the Lord as Parambrahman.
Madhva, who in 12.51 of Madhva Vijay is compared to Lord Nrsimhadeva, shining greatly, who is about to rip to pieces the insignificant wasp like Hiranyakasipus, who having done their dirty deed have now cowardly run away.
Oh demons in the form of Mayavadis now see that the Vaisnava guru is saksadhari being qualitatively equal to the heat felt by Sisupal. “O foolish mayavadins soon you will taste the nature the Lord when the life air is stopped.” Madhva, now in an angry mood, carries his own sudarsana disc in the form of sharp words supported by sastra, telling of the results of such thievery.
Madhva started out for the camp of the doomed Mayavadis. After a fierce walk Madhva and his party covered the distance bewteen the fleeing Mayavadis and themselves overnight at the village of Pragrya Vata (Kudipadi) where the Supreme Personality of Godhead resides in His Deity form as Lord Janardana.
Padmatirtha humbly and fearful, tried to approach Madhvacarya and his party to try to cover everything up, as though it had never happened. Trying to avoid a scandal after being caught red handed, Padmatirtha tried to make so many compromises. Talking around the actual even, Padmatirtha indirectly trying to say that is wasn’t him who stole the books.
By now the month of Asadha (June/July) had arrived which denotes the start of the rainy season and the vows of Caturmasya for the sannyasis. Madhva and his party stayed put for the four months in Kalu village. Madhva didn’t care for the excuses of these Mayavadis and after he finally kicked out any hope in Padmatirtha’s heart of any compromise, Padmatirtha and his party left their lodgings to sneak away like the thieves they are.
Madhva was confident that by the Lord’s grace his books would come back, for he had collected the most rare and ancient of Vaisnava literatures, as well as his own commentaries on these books. His library was volumous. Not that Madhva really needed those books to rely on, but the unlimited stock pile of sastras which he had in his possession supported his claims from all other great rsis and munis in days of yore, as well as the Lord Himself.
News had spread both far and wide of the theft of Acarya Madhva’s books until it reached the ears of the Vaisnava king of Kumbha (Kerala), whose name was Jayasimha Maharaja. He sent a message to Madhva saying that he would like to reclaim those books if Madhva so desired, and Madhva gave his consent.
Madhva Vijay 13.4-8 compares Madhva to the Ganges that purifies the sins of innumerable persons and always remains pure itself. Many persons indirectly of directly render service to Mother Ganges in the form of drinking her pure waters, bathing and worshipping her. Also here it is stated however that the Vaisnava acarya is even more revered and holy than hundreds of holy rivers, for by bathing in such rivers many times one will undoubtedly become purified, but just by one eleventh of a second’s association with the pure Vaisnava devotee of the Lord, one’s whole life is changed consequently they are known by names like Visnupada, Tirthapada,, Prabhupada and Bhagavatpada.
Feeling like this, Jayasimha Maharaja wanted an opportunity to serve Madhvacarya since he had heard so much about him and his preaching mission. He knew that this was no ordinary sannyasi like one’s that he would just give alms to, or who travel from one holy place to another, but here was a walking place of pilgrimage, a paramhamsa, wherever he went that place became holy and all kinds of devotees flocked to him.
That next full moon night Jayasimha Maharaja and his whole army went and found Padmatirtha and his party in their encampment. Raja Jayasimha gave an ultimatum to the Mayavadis – bring out all the books within five minutes or be slaughtered by this valiant army!
Within the alloted time, stack by stack, the descendants of Sankaracarya brought out the stolen books. Free from sentiment, the King and his army received the stolen books and took them back to their camp. To add insult to the sudden humility of Sankarites, the King just took the books from them and left with his army without so much as even looking at their dry black faces, such low and disgusting creatures were they considered to be.
Jayasimha Maharaja sent his royal messenger to Madhva at Mount Sahya (Coorg), where he was blessing his disciples, and asked him to to come to Visnumangalam with his men to reclaim his books. Madhva travelled with his party westwards and went to Kabenadu in the Kumbla kingdom and visited the temple of Manadadhipati (Madaneswara). Madhva spent the night there and took bath in the temple tank. This temple is five miles from Kumbla at the village of Madhur.
In Madhva Vijay 13.11-23 it is mentioned how Madhvacarya walked in grand possession from Madanadhipati to Visnumangalam with hundred of his followers walking with him. As he walked in the centre of the crowd, boldly walking with fresh tilak and the marks of the disc and conch on his strong body. He was garlanded with a maha-prasada Tulasi garland which reached to his knees. There were followers chanting nicely in sankirtan the holy names of the Lord. In front was the purna kumbha pot of honour and over his head was a pure white umbrella fit for a king. In a bag around his neck bound with rope were the Asta Murti Saligrams that Srila Vyasadeva had given him. On Madhva’s face was a beaming smile. Surrounded by hundreds of ascetics and householders, Madhva strode along the road without any sign of fatigue followed by many disciples and his bullock cart pulled by his favourite bull to reclaim the books.
Just outside the place of Madaneswara, King Jayasimha came to meet with Madhva. Jayasimha Maharaja, out of respect, got down from his palanquin and humbly walked to Sripada Madhvacarya, the best of Vaisnava sannyasis. even though he was the monarch of the Kumbla kingdom, Jayasimha Maharaja, at a short distance from Madhva, prostrated himself at Madhva’s feet. The king dispersed his army to the sides of the road to make a path for Madhvacarya and himself to walk down. everyone was ecstatically amazed at the humility and devotion of the King.
Hearing the pomp of the regal procession, all the villagers nearby Visnumangalam came out in their thousands to greet Acaryas Madhva, his party, and the saintly king. It was an amazing sight. Many persons standing at the roadside chanting the glories of the Lord through different suktas like Purusa Sukta, Narayana Sukta, Visnu Sukta. Many clad with lotus seed neck beads and sank and cakras on their shoulders, and dancing in sankirtan.
The Mayavadis had tried to supress Madhva, but the Lord had made him more and more glorious. Such is the plan of the Lord. Just by seeing Madhvacarya everyone felt satisfied. He was now coming as if slowly, though actually quickly, with a dignified gait like a powerful young lion. Madhva’s feet were auspiciously tinged with a red hue like that of fine rubies, his toes are described as being like the neck and head of an excellent tortoise protuding from his feet. Madhva who has soft round ankles and knees worthy of being served even by the devas like Rudra, Candra, etc. was like a rare nectar to the eyes of all.
Those persons standing nearby could see Madhva’s lower garment being made of the very best silk, wrapped around his firm and slender waist. his upper cloth was made of closely woven sheep wool, red in colour, and woven on fine soft threads.
Madhva’s stature is described as being with broad chest, wall like shoulder blades and thick, round, long arms which resembled fighting clubs. His hands poised with his flag in the form of two fingers defining dwaita (dualism) and his face resembled a spotless moon. His teeth are like jasmine buds which shine through the gentle smile of his reddish lips. Looking around ar the crowed, everyone is taken back by the pleasing and kind look of his soft lotus eyes.
With bunches of Tulasi manjaris tucked above his right ear, in humility he bowed to everyone who had come to greet him. After being welcomed in this way, Maharaja Jayasimha then led Acarya Madhva to a raised dias and seated Madhva there. Then Jayasimha Maharaja had his men bring in Madhvacarya’s personal library that he had reclaimed, and presented the books to Madhva who then blessed the saintly king. Raja Jayasimha Maharaja then left Visnumangalam for his kingdom of Kumbla, a new man, and a devotee of Madhvacarya.
Sitting in the assembly of learned brahmins, pandits and well wishers, Madhva sent for his disciple Hrsikesha tirtha and had him recite from the Srimad Bhagavatam and Bhagavad-gita, Madhwacarya in perfect hjarmony accompanied his disciple as they sung the verses together using all different swaras. Afterwards Madhva spoke on each relevent sloka, giving his commentary.
Srila Madhvacarya says, vividham bhava-patratvat sarve visnor vibhutayah. “That Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead and that all other incarnations proceed from Visnu.”
tay-pada-pankaja palasa vilasa bhaktya
karmasayam grathitam udgrathayanti santah
tadvan na rikta-matayo yatayo ‘pi ruddha-
sroto-ganas tam aranam bhaja vasudevam
“Just try to worship in devotional service, Vasudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. even great sages are not fully able to control the forces of the senses as effectively as those who are engaged in transcendental bliss by serving the lotus feet of the Lord, uprooting the deep rooted desire for fruitive activities and their results.”
anistam istam misram ca
tri-vidham karmanah phalam
bhavaty atyaginam pretya
na tu sannyasinam kvacit
“For one who is not renounced, the threefold fruits of action – desirable, undesirable and mixed – accrue after death. But those who are renounced in their life have no such result to suffer or enjoy.”
ye tu sarvani karmani mayi sannyasya mat-parah
ananyenaiva yogena mam dhyayanta upasate
tesam aham samuddharta mrtyu samsara sagarat
bhavami na cirat partha mayyavesita cetasam
“Those who worship Me (Krsna), giving up all their fruitive activities unto Me and being devoted to me without deviation, engaged in devotional service and always thinking of Me (Krsna) having fixed their minds upon Me (Krsna), O son of Prtha – for them I am the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death.”
tat te ‘nukampam su-samiksamano
bhunjano evatma-krtam vipakam
hrd-vag vapurbhir vidadhan namas te
jiveta yo mukti pade sa daya bhak
“One who earnestly waits for your causeless mercy to be bestowed upon him, My Lord, all the while patiently suffering the reactions of his past misdeads and offering You (Krsna) respectful obeisances with his heart, words and body, is surely eligiible for liberation, for it has become his rightful claim.”
Madhvacarya told a number of Krsna’s pastimes at this time and stated the above facts that only Lord Sri Krsna, Mukunda, the holder of the Sudarsana Cakra, can put an end to the vicious cycle of birth and death. Like this Madhva disclosed as to who is the giver of liberation and qualifcation of the candidate for liberation.
TRIVIKRAMACARYA (TRIVIKRAMA PANDITACARYA)
Madhva Vijay 13.43 introduces a member of the congregation of brahmins, a great pandit who everyone looked up to. In fact his erudition far surpassed all the other pandits of Visnumangala. he was famous throughout the south. Practically from his birth in the family of Subrahmanya Pandit of the Angirasa Gotra, Trivikrama, even in his indistinct baby talk, would compose wonderful poems. In the village of Kasargod in the house of the name Kavumutt, as he grew up he outshone all the respected pandits of the area. Trivikrama Pandit studied the scriptures according to Sankara, but was never really satisfied with it’s conclusions. Trivikram Pandit’s father also told him in his youth that to become one in meditation with Brahman will never give satisfaction, for it is not an ultimate goal. In fact it is the effulgence of the transcendental bodily form of Lord Sri Krsna, so better you worship Him from whense that effulgence comes.
But even with the good instructions of his father, Trivikrama Pandit whose mind was flickering from one thing to another, secretly studied the Sankara Bhasya.
madhva Vijay 13.50 also points out that trivikrama Pandit even surpassed the learning of Bhanu (Prabhakara). Trivikrama Pandit was a good householder who upheld the panca maha yajnas of householder life – (1) reciting Vedic literature, (2) performance of homa (fire jayna), (3) worsshipping and feeding guests as one would the Lord, (4) offering oblations to the departed forefathers – sraddha pata, and (5) offering foodstuffs in charity to the people in general.
Trivikrama Pandit’s study of the Vedic literatures such as the four Vedas, as well as grammar and prosody, was very prolific but still hewas secretly inclined to Sankara’s Bhasya.
Trivikrama argued it out with madhva’s disciples constantly. Trivikrama Pandit’s own younger brother was in fact the librarian, Samkaracarya, and so Trivikrama had begun to read some of Madhva’s works and had experienced a pleasant surprise to his mind. even though it is for certain that the works od Madhva are to be accepted as first class sastric evidence, Trivikrama did not accept even one word at first, though sometimes as he read Madhva’s Brahma Sutra Bhasya his blood boiled with anger as Madhva, with unceremonial glee, smashed the citidels of advaitin vedanta.
At this time in Visnumangala, whilst Madhvacarya sat on the dias, that best of pandits sat to listen to madhva’s conclusions on the Srimad Bhagavatam. After some time however, Trivikrama could no longer bear to hear Madhva’s personalistic view of Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and so offered a challenge.
Trivikrama Pandit was a born genius, but over the next fifteen days he was so amazed by the presentation of Madhvacarya that his challenge d\ceased. Over the course of those fifteen days at the village of Amaralaya (kudilu) Madhva presented and defeated all known philosophies and even those of a mixed or uncertain nature.
While the debate ensued, Madhvacarya still kept to his normal program of rising early in the morning before the arundaya (sun rise) when the son of Vinata (Aruna, the brother of Garuda) was to rise. Before sunrise, during the Brahma Muhurta period, Madhva took his bath and prepared himself to worship Lord Narayana.
At the temple tank Madhva and many of his sannyasi disciples would take their baths and brush their teeth with twigs from the nim tree. After drying his body and then marking it with Visnava tilaks whilst chanting the Lord’s holy names, Madhvacarya performed pranayam breathing control and then dressed in fresh clean cloth.
Some of Madhva’s younger disciples stayed up late the night before and because of this had still not gotten up from their sleep, nor had they done their prescribed duties. Madhva chastised them saying, “O disciples, why haven’t you performed your work that has been assigned to you?” With their bodies bowed out of huimility, they replied that “Out of respect for you and the older disciples we had waited some time so as not to bathe at the same time as yourselves, so we were waiting until you had completed your bath, for we consider you as our spiritual masters.”
When everyone was ready the puja bega. Madhva would worship his Saligram Silas given by Srila Vyasadeva, first by proksaniyasm cleansing, and by lighting lamps to illuminate the area from darkness. Madhkess then took away from the Saligrams the previous day’s flowers.
Even with the flowers offered to Madhva’s Saligrams, incredible theings happened. Some of the disciples thought that there was ghee somehow on the flowers, but Madhva told them that even the flowers were in so much ecstacy that they excreted nectar so thick and in such abundance it appeared to be ghee-like.
At the auspicious time of sunrise Madhva and his men engaged in glorifying the Supreme Lord who resides within the sun globe, bedecked with golden ornaments and holding a pure white conch in one hand and the Sudarsana disc in the other. With choice prayers they worshipped the sun in it’s aspects of Arundaya Usodaya and Suryodaya by the process of Sandhya Vandanam, the prayers conducted at each of the three conjunctions of dawn, noon and dusk (sandhyams).
Madhva then bathed the Saligrams in pure waters from the temple kund whilst some of his disciples chanted prayers from various Vedic hymns. He had personally collected this water for the puja and had made sure it was pure, cool, without additional colour – free from anything being in it, free from any bad odour and untouched by finger or toe nails.
Smearing the Saligrams with purest sandalwood oil and anointing their lotus feet with fresh tulasi leaves and manjaris (buds), he also then offered the best of fragrant flowers such as lotus, jasmine, campaka (frangapani). Madhva Vijay 14.35 states these flowers came from various sources on a framework from trees and from creepers that spread themselves on the ground and which look like Laxmidevi, the crest jewel of all flowers.
In this way Madhva offered sixteen first class articles to Their Lordships whilst avoiding the offences for Their worship. (MV 14.36).
After the worship was over for the time being Madhva took some payasam sweet rice mahaprasad. By this time it was about two or three in the afternoon, and many persons had now come to see him, each of them trying to serve him first.
Madhvacarya made a rule that from this day on, every person who comes to see the Lord in the temple, and who comes to see Madhva, the Lord’s servant, must get tirtha (caranmrta) and prasad before they leave the premises.
His disciples again read for some time and Madhva made comments on important factors in each verse, until finally Madhva told the assembly, enough reflecting on the book, more can be done later. For now, madhva was to propound more points on relevent issues of Who is the Supreme, who is the h\jiva, what is their relationship and how they differ. After some time the sun started to go down, but this did not stop Madhvacarya.
Madhva Vijay points out in 14.50 that at this time as the sun was going down, those who were brahmins in the assembly performed the agni hotra fire sacrifice with recitation of idan na mama, for the oblations are meant for Lord Visnu and “not for me” (idan na mam). This was again done upon the orders of Acarya Madhva, for his life is based solely on this principle. Acarya Madhva’s only thought and deed was for the Lord’s service.
As the full moon was in the sky Acarya Madhva described the Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna intimately as having a dark blackish blue lustre similar to the finest blue gem, Who has teeth like the new buds of the jasmine flower that are tinged with pink, and Who is decorated with a wonderful garland of forest flowers like parijata, lotus, malati and others and which is called Vaijanti. Krsna is the Lord of the gopis (cowherd girls) and friend of the cowherd boys (gopas). Krsna has no bashfulness when He sports with the gopis at night or steals their clothes as they bath, leaving their clothes on the bank of the Yamuna River. Krsna teases those ofrtunate girls until they succumb to Him and come out from the water to collect their clothes.
In this way, as the moon brightens the sky at night, so madhva enlightened the dsiciples on the different wonderful attrributes of Lord Sri Krsna from the Srimad Bhagavatam. everyone just sat and listened to Acarya Madhva speak, not even taking their eyes off him for a second, everyone was so satisfied for it was just like hearing directly from Srila Vyasadeva the best of Rsis.
Due to the assembley’s absorbtion in the depths of Madhva’s discourse they completely forgot about time. Knowing that in such pure association there is no difference in result between happiness and distress, just as an expert business man makes money when the market is up and also when it is seemingly down, so the assembly of devotees knew that whatever circumstances appear one must take shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord and His pure devotee. Madhvacarya then started to give the arguments of many known philosophies and then show their main defects to prove to the audience that only the Vaisnava conclusions can give actual understanding of the Lord and His otherwise inconceivable attributes for it is only by worshipping the Lord with love and devotion that he personally gives the understanding by which one can come to Him.
Madhva’s voice was neither slow nor fast nor materially flatering but was flowing rich and continuous..
Trivikramacarya stayed and listened whilst still mentally trying to find faults, though he could not.
Madhvacarya proved by Veda as well as reasoning that Lord Visnu who is mentioned in all the Vedic literatures as being full in all good qualities, however these qualities are not full in jivas like us. One man may be a little famous, or may have some wealth, or may even be quite handsome, or quite learned, and the same with power and renounciation. Some persons may have some of these oppulences but the Supreme Personality of Godhead has each of them to the fullest extent and more. his unlimites good qualities proved that He alone is the Supreme God, He is also the omniscient, omnipotent, creator (sustainer and destroyer) of His creation, the universes.
Paromatraya tanva vridhana etc declares His unlimited qualities; sarvesu bhutesu etam evam brahmetyacaksate etc; confirms His appellation or discrimination as to distinguishing factors of Brahman; tava etah sarvarcah etc says that the Lord is known by the Vedas; yo nah pita janita yo vidhata etc goes on to declare Him as the primary creator of the universe.
Some persons say (the Niresvara Sankhyas) that God is not the creator of the universe but that the inanimate pradhana transforms itself inot the universe in a way much like milk turning into yogurt.
Madhva points out to his own statement that if this is os, that milk is the independant creator of yogurt, then their argument is true. But it is not a fact, for something has touched the milk to turn it to yogurt, be it culture, acid, heat or some entity. etena vavo payo mandam bhavati etc.
So in the same way, after creating the pradhana, the Lord impregnates it by His glance. Bhagavad-gita confirms this:
sarva yonisu kaunteya
murtayah sambhavanti yah
tasam brahma mahad yonir
aham bija pradah pita
“It should be understood that all species of life, O son of Kunit, are made possible by birth in this material nature, and that I am the seed giving father.”
Those who follow the schools of the Bhattas (smarta), Prabhakaras and Carvakas say that the pradhana is the creator, much like saying that nature is the creator without asking whose nature? They say indirectly that the mother if the primary creator without any contact with an impregnating father. Mother nature supplies the body but the father supplies the seed, and Krsna has already stated that He is this creator – the seed giving father. Madhvacarya argued strongly to enable the bewildered people to understand these simple points. The poor peoples have been cheated for so long accepting blindly devious philsophies without asking even the basic questions for as soon as one asks these questions one has to accept God is creator but these rascals this they will no do. for if they accept the creator as being a supreme person, who is the controller and organizer, ruler of the unlimited universes then they have to surrender to Him, again this they will not do.
The Supreme Creating Father has spoken the Vedas, but this actual pure Vedanta these persons cannot understand, for they are all like unchaste women who are uncontrolled by their husbands. So in this way these persons actually deny the Vedas and try instead to establish their won ideas without reference to the actual Vedas spoken by the Lord, then they try to establish transcendental abjectives by reason only which is in their unfounded case only mental speculation, for they have no real philosophy. Madhva says,
In the Brahma-Parinama Vada philosophy of Bhaskara it is said that Brahman has no form yet the light of Brahman is a form in itself, and granting for arguments sake that a transofrmation of Brahman with a complete loss ofone’s original form is possible, then the question still remains which is one’s actual natural form, and does one loose that original form completely or partially?
So if as we know Brahman consists of saccidananda, eternity, knowledge and bliss, then surely Brahman is not that which is the cause of change like milk and yogurt. There is a sentient being, God, that is the source of the Brahman effulgence, and He is the Supreme Controller and the ultimate goal of life, the only true resting place. Other so called resting places are like so many verses describing a crow to be white.
The Vaisesikas say that Lord Narayana cannot be the supreme for He is devoid of happiness, this what they say! Because He has no sorrow or unhappiness, then how can He have happiness for one must ecperience sorrow to appreciate happiness, and seeing that He doesn’t experience sorrow then He cannot experience happiness.
Madhva says, out of ignorance one is in delusion and out of knowledge one is in happiness. Reason cuts both ways, it allows you to deprive the Lord of His natural happiness and it also allows you fools to prove lack of knowledge in Him. But this is just delusion for that knowledge which does not give a sound conclusion of the personification of knowledge, for example, that the all knowing, eternal, blissful Lord who is the supreme controller and enjoyer, thaty so-called knowledge is simple so many words.
In this way the foolish vcaisesikas think that the Lord has a material body, and is subject to happiness and distress like those subject to repetition of birth and death in this material world. This mundane mentality the Lord Himself condemns in the Bhagavad-gita (9.11). avajananti mam mudha… So rather than impose our mundane perception on the Lord, better is to accept our view that the Lord is always absorbed in His own bliss.
According to Tarkikas, the relation between the mode of nature and the possesser thereof is known as samavaya relationship. It is one only and non-different from each other. This philosophy also leans towards vaisesika although the tarkikas may and do say that though samavaya is one, it may be different due to upadhi or conditions. According to Madhva, upadhis are of two kinds, external which give rise to a distorted reflection of the truth much like a dusty and cracked mirror, reflecting the bound jiva soul to be the same as his body, bodily possessions such as family, friends, and all their paraphernalia, etc, on account of having them with him for an extremely long time, and so making him fall prey to their influences that give a sense of false security and unfortunately direct one to act independently from the will of the Lord. Then there is svarupopadhis which directly relates the jiva as being the Lord’s eternal servant. The tarkikas unfortunately don’e follow this principal. Instead they insist that there is no distinction between the person and the effect, part, subject and attributes. Generally then the tarkikas are to be with the Vaisesikas.
So in this way, by reasoning with upadhi in respect to Samavaya, their philsophy was refuted. Madhvacarya then went to on show further how difference must be there even with submissive persons of like nature, for if the defference between the mode and person influenced by the modes is accepted as it must be, there will be another dispute because there will always be differences even though one may want a mutual relation. for differences must be there as an intrinsic relationship between all things. How can the broken pot like philosophy of exclusive oneness by taken seriously?
Now there is another group who are neither Vaisesikas, nor Buddhists (Baudhas). They call themselves Vedantists. Really they are concealed Mayavadis and are called Madhyamikas, one’s who follow the middle path (Vedanta mixed with Buddhism). This is the philsophy of Madhyamaka (Madhyamikavrtti.) Though they call themselves Vedantists really they are more interested in morals of a material nature. The universe they see as being neither real nor unreal, and no truth can be really established for it appears from one’s own conception of a situation. Nor do they accept eternity (sasvatavada) nor voidism or nihilism (ucchedavada), and so they are called madhyamikas (middle of the road). They even say there is no real truth in them or in anything else. They say that the cause of everything is neither the Lord (Narayana), nor themselves, nor from nature, nor from time, nor arising from desire, for the creation comes of it’s own cause from it’s own desire, born of ignorance but coming to life. Actually they are cheats and simply prey on those who want to be cheated so they can ‘enjoy’ in this material world separately from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Who, despite their ignorance of Him, is the Supreme creator, enjoyer, and proprietor of everything, the revealer of truth and only source of fulfilment.
These wicked, covered Mayavadis, say that the Veda who has such forms as mantra, the brahmin-sadhus, and Upanisads, etc still does not inform anyone on the truth of what is Brahman, and so they say that Brahman is void. Again because they can’t perceive something then it doesn’t exist. Their philosophy is neither scientific nor sane.
To show how these Madhyanmikas who follow Mayavad and Buddhism as having really no difference between these two philosophies, Madhva presented the following argument:
“Since you say that everything is coming from Brahman as it’s cause, including the universe, and that since this Brahman is without form or distinctiveness, void, then there is no difference in the Buddhist or Mayavada philosophies.
“So Oh Baudda, your void cannot be the cause of the universe, for it is unreal and non-existant. Such is the meaning of void. Only that which is real can cuase another real object to manifest. Nothing doesn;t suddenly produce something. Even you may say that the universe is produced from ignorance of the void, like silver bring present in a pearl. If you really believe this then take out the silver from the pearl. For you are in illusion, Only a fool would say such things.
“O Mayavadis, what are you saying? You try to say that all the Upanisads support your stance that brahma satyam jagan mrtya – that Brahman is truth and everything else is false. You try to say that by means of the three modes of implication Brahman is propounded throughout the Vedas (Upanisads), but according to this then Brahman is savisesa (full of all kinds of attributes such as saccidananda vigraha). But how can this be for you, for you say that Brahman is nirvisesa (without character). You say that Brahman is characterless, without form, distinctions, or features and qualities. Yet the pholosophy of visesa defeats you simply in child-like statements and establishes identity and individuality or difference. Even in every day life we make so many distinctions. In respects to insentient or inert objects, some are produced as an interaction with other visesa or elements and some are as they are for as long as they stay in that form or visesa. If you don’t distinguish one thing from another you will surely make fools of yourselves. In sentient beings also, visesa applies one person is eating, one is walking, one if coming, one is going, etc etc. Differences are all going on according to varieties of activities.
“If you cannot make sense of this then dress in fire or eat earth, walk in the air or eat with the anus. What is the difference? Can’t you see what is happening. Everyday simply without fully understanding your flimsy philosophy you try to juggle words to make bogus statements, but now you are exposed. Make up your minds. Does the Lord have a transcendental form, is He formless, or is it a material form. Simply out of envy for Him you cheat yourselves into thinking you are that supreme. Wishful thinking and word jugglery.
“Let me explain – when one uses the modes of implication such as jahallaksana, the direct meaning of a sentence is discarded in favour of an indirect meaning such as ‘ganayam ghosah’, ‘the village of the cowherds is in the Ganges’, and by applying jahallaksana it becomes ‘the village of the cowherds is on the bank of the Ganges.’ By use of ajahallaksana the direct meaning of a sentence is not completely discarded but hints at the meaning are given, such as ‘sonah dhavati’ which means ‘the red is running’ and so is to be understood as ‘the red horse is running’. So in the same way, in the case of jahadajahallaksana, one part of the direct meaning is given up and another part of the direct meaning is retained. You accept tat tvam asi to mean ‘I am the same as’ or “that thou art’. The association of ‘that thou art’ or ‘I and that which is the same’, that which is of remote omniscience and the I that am of immediate nature, I am that is different. This actually gives a wrong interpretation for which should be accepted is the common factor to both and that is the pure consciousness, for that ‘unknowable omniscience’ as you say is different from the tiny personality who makes the false claim. You misquote Vedic literature but now listen to this verse:
yena vyaptam akhanda-mandalam idam brahmananda bhankadikim
re re manda-mate tvaya katham aho so ‘ham vacah kathyate
kasya tvam kuta agatah katham are samsara bandha-klamas
tattvam tat paricintaya swa-hrdaye-bhrantasya margam tyaja
“O foolish individual spirit soul, how is it that you are says ‘I am the supreme who pervades the entire universe?’ O individual spirit soul, who has placed you within this material universe? From where have you come? Why are you forced to suffer so greatly within this world? O individual soul, please honestly for a moment reflect within your heart and try to understand what is the actual truth. Please give up this illusory path of the theory of mayavada.”
satyaam jnanam anantam is siad by you, but you do not give any qualifications in this statement. Simply you say unidfferentiated brahman. however if it is to be accepted by you, that insentiency inas much as there cannot be a creator, with ahnds, feet, mouth, eyes, body, etc, actually this is offensive.
Those persons who are unofrtunately afflicted with the liver disease jaundice, cannot appreciate the sweetness of sugar candy, in fact to them sugar candy is very bitter. So unfortunate are they that their yellow deseased eyes cannot see the whiteness of a conchshell, because they see everything yellow. In the same why, those persons whose dirty hearts and minds are constantly, frantically making plan after plan for sense gratification, how can they understand what is spiritual purity? Those who are afflicted with the Mayavada disease cannot perceive the happiness in worshipping and glorfying Lord Sri Krsna, Who is the Personality of Godhead full in all wonderful spiritual attributes.
After studying all the revealed scriptures such as the Vedas, Puranans, Upanisads, Vedanta Sutra, how can anyone in their right mind say that the tiny conditioned soul can be entirely the same as this supreme soul, Krsna.
jiva evatu suhkhinah, tesam duhkhaprahanaya srituresha pravartate
The Lord Himself has given us these Vedic literatures for the benefit of all suffering souls. Out of His own causeless mercy, He has done this due to His supremely compassionate nature, so that we can all again return to His supreme abode and again be happy in His service.
Now out of envy some rascals – Mayavadis – say that everyone is God or the supreme, but still they won’t accept the Original Personality of Godhead Sri KRsna as that surpeme – everyone except Him. They even go as far as to say that Rudra, Hiranyagarbha, Indra, Siva, etc but all these names are actually the names of the Supreme Lord, Visnu. In Visnu Sahasra Nama these names are attributed to Him only. Others are Rudra dasa, Siva dasa, Indra dasa, etc, for they are all servants of the Supreme. Please try to understand this.
kale krtayuge tada naiva cendradi namadi
visno ranyatra kutracit brahmarudrendra
purvestu namabhih procyate harih
devatatvena cejyah sa brahmadya manunamakah
vaktrtvena pitrtvena karitvenanuvacadarat
iyjante devatah sarvah natu devataya dvacit
In the Krta Yuga (Satya Yuga) Lord Visnu alone was being worshipped as the SUpreme Person even by Rudra and Indra. Others were addressed according to their function such as preceptor, Lord of the forefathers, etc, but not as Supreme. Only in recent times since the advent of false philosophies such as Buddhism and Mayavada have persons become confused as to who is the Supreme Lord, each fool claiming this one, that one supreme, (including himself).
So my Mayavadi ‘Friends”, if you, I and everyone and everything else are all actually the same Supreme Brahman and there is no real differentiation or distinction between us, then we are actuall one. If this is true, they your wealth, children house, wife, and all of your possessions are actually mine. There I claim them now, please give them to me at once. My dear Mayavadi Sannyasis, if we are all actually the Supreme, then all the divisions of varnasrama dharma have no meaning, and the orders and prohibitions of the Vedas then are also without meaning. You claim to base your theory on the Vedas, Upanishads, etc, but your theory leads its followers to reject the Vedas which are likened to one’s guru. What difference then is there between your theory and atheistic Buddhism? If the Buddhists are heretics and offenders for rejecting the Vedas, why are you also not heretics for the same reasons?
Please don’t try to cheat yourselves!
Changing his direction for a second, Madhva then mentioned Carvaka. If dharma and morals are not in line with the Vedic injunctions then these concoctions of over zealous sense enjoyers are to be rejected. As stated in Bhagavad-gita (16.23):
yah sastra-vidhim utsrjya
na sa siddhim avapnoti
na sukham na param gatim
“He who discrads scriptural injunctions and acts according to his own whims attains neither perfection, not happiness, nor the supreme destination, (The lotus feet of the Lord.)
However this Carvaka who says that one’s own limited perception is the only instrument of knowledge is spreading a modd which is falsely independant, do what you like, if it feels good do it. Carvaka has completely rejected the authority of the Vedas or any other scripture for that matter. Life is just a combination of atoms, matter and nothing else. There is no soul or supreme soul. There is no after life, and no rewards of action or reaction as there is neither virtue not vice. everything is for sense enjoyment and nothing more. So as long as it lasts, great. What then is the use of thinking of anything else – enjoy for everything ends at death. Love life to the full, for if you done get the best out of life someone else will beat you to it. Simple sense gratification at a fever pitch! Trust nothing, no future however bright, enjoy now before it’s too late. What is truth, you cannot prove anything, and to infere, well maybe by accident you may come to the same conclusion as me, but there is no guarantree so why bother with religion and philosophy. Enjoy! Enjoy! At all costs enjoy!
Oh madman Carvaka, we cannot accept your talking as being authentic because you are what you are – a materialistic enjoyer. Your concocted Sutras with speculative tenants we can believe in your authenticity about as mucha s we do the Buddhist who also cannot be considered as authentic for they also outright deny the Vedas. Rather both of you try to invent ‘dharma’, like an envious person who will not accept that the invention of the wheel has already taken place. for the non acceptance of proven qualities or facts that are plain to see even, are further signs of enviousness. Instead you make cynical remarks to try to minimize the Vedic statements. This philosophy os cynicism if your crest jewel.
Madhva Vijay 15.46 strongly makes it’s stand that the persistance of these ‘bad-sastras’, which are opposed to Vedic understanding, and which defy the Vedas, to those who support these philosophies are faced with a frightening existance in a hellish condition of sufferiong, practically for eternality.
This is also confirmed in Isa Upanisad 9
andham tamah pravisanti
ye ‘vidyam upasate
tato bhuya iva te tamo
ya u vidyayam ratah
“Those who engage in the culture of nescient activities whall enter into the darkest region of ignorance. Worse still are those who are engaged in the so-called culture of knowledge.”
Also Bhagavad-gita 7.15 states:
na mam duskrtino mudhah
asuram bhavam asritah
“Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me (Krsna the Supreme Personality of Godhead).”
Sri Isopanisad supports Madhva’s statement recorded in Madhva Vijay 15.47 which says that the Vaisnavas worhsip Lord Narayana, Who is known by the Vedas and gives liberation and bliss in the form of personal associaiton with the Lord’s transcendental form. Isopanisad mantra 16 says:
pusann ekarse yama surya prajapatya vyuha rasmin samuha
tejo yat te rupam kalyanatamam tat te pasyami
yo sav asau purusah so ‘ham asmi
“O My Lord, P primeval philosopher, maintainer of the universe, O regulating principle, destination of the pure devotees, well wisher of the progenitors of mankind, please remove the effulgence (brahmajyoti) of Your transcendental rays so that I can see Your form of bliss. You are the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead, likened unto the sun, I am also of that nature – sunlike.”
You cheating Mayavadis, pasandis (heretics), you try to say that that Supreme Person is formless. It is not so, for He certainly has a form but it is not material, it has spiritual arms and legs, eyes, ears, mouth etc which are made of eternal youth, unlike material bodies. Because of your arrogance born of thinking that you are God, you cannot accept, a person that is unlike you, for you are suffering, narrow minded and unfortunate. This is the disease of this material world – but this Supreme Person is not of this world, and actually nor are you. Actually you are an eternal fragmental part of the Lord like a ray of the sun, Accept this point and serve Him naturally and be happy.
Now take this opportunity to get out of the cycle of repeated birth and death. This human form of life is so rare, don’t waste it. Now you are experiencing the unhappiness of samsara (repeated birth , death, old age and disease) but you don’t have to. We understand that because you are suffering then due to the pain you want to artificially renounce or deny that which has cuased you pain, but it is not at all necessary. Just try to understand what is what.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is full of knowledge. He is the enjoyer of a host of transcendnetal pastimes with His devotees. His every desire is immediately fulfilled without the least endeavour. He is full of all transcendental opulences and all auspicious qualities. Where do the Vedas say that He has no qualities of opulences? You are always silenced by these questions.
Something that exists but has no qualities has never been perceived, either in anyone’s direct experience or in the Vedic literatures. This misconception of qualityless substance is an illusory phantasmagoria that exists only in the minds of you who propound this maya (illusory) vada (doctrine), It is like a great flower that is imagined to float in the sky. If you think you can substantiate something you have said simply by juggling words and thus saying that you have found some sastric quotation to substantiate your mythical qualityless substance, then I say no intelligent person will believe you, for even the laymen know that when the Vedas explain the Supreme as being without qualities, it is to beunderstood it means material qualities , for He is spiritual by nature.
According to the bhasya of Madhvacarya this pure personalistic philosophy is so straight forward that even a child can nicely understand it, but the devious Mayavadi ‘pandits’ cannot. This is also supported in Madhva Vijay 9.10.
The Vaisesikas also, as well as you mayavadis, just can’t seem to understand how the limbs of the Lord are different from the limbs of His devotees, what to speak of the atheists, for the Lord’s body is completely spiritual and so His limbs are naturally spiritual, being made of spiritual substance (saccidananda vigraha) and not mucus, bile and air. Yet even mucus, bile and air can act in a spiritual way when that body which they make up is of the Lords’ pure devotess and is engaged nicely in the Lord’s service. Just as an iron rod when placed into fire takes on the qualities of fire by association and burns like fire and as long as that separated energy of the fire remains in contact with the original fire, it can remain fire-like. In thesame way, by engaging in the eternal blissful service of the Lord, Sri Krsna, one can become aware of Him, and by His food association in unlimited transcendental forms, His name, His literature, His devotees, one can become not Him, but again happily His.
For those whose minds are attached to the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Supreme, advancement is very troublesome. To make progress in that disciple is always difficult for those who are embodied.
But those who worship the Lord, giving up all their activities unto Him and being devoted to Him without deviation, engaged in His devotional service and always meditating upon Him, having fixed their minds upon Him, for them my friends the Lord is the swift deliverer from this ocean of birth and death.
As Madhvacarya, sitting before the assembly finishes with on philosophy that has been put under his philosophical scruteny, dismantled, and disgardeed, Madhva moves on to the next candidate.
Trivikrama Pandit was astounded at these revolutionary refutations of Madhva. But he hadn’t finished yet, everyone sat with raft attention silent fixed on the words of the acarya.
Now Madhva is talking outwardly with force as if addressing his opponents.
Madhva then turns to the philosophy of Bhaskara Bhatta; your logical deduction that there is not a personality of Godhead but instead some ethereal judge with no form is ridiculous. How can something that has qualitities have substance. This even goes against your philosophy which is that only that which has substance can have qualitities and yet now you say that which has no qualities has substance. How is that? You say that there is no person yet the ‘hidden judge’ soomehow or another according to you has worshipable pure intelligence that is situated in Brahman.
Madhva says it will be an example of logical dissimilarity comparing a sentient person to being a stone unmoving and unfeeling, or saying that there is no Supreme Controller but simply intelligence, but whose intelligence and where does it come from? Why do you deny the Supreme Personality of Godhead?
There are five kinds of moksa or liberation. Why oh why do all you aforesaid philosophers desire to avoid the Lord?
These five kinds of liberation are (1) to become one with the Lord – merging, (2) to live on the same planet as the Lord and enjoy his association, (3) to enjoy the same oppulences as the Lord, (4) to possess the similar bodily features as the Lord of Vaikuntha having four arms, etc, (5) to gain the Lord’s personal association constantly and be the Lord’s eternal companion.
But all of you are so persistant that either there is no controller, so as not to impere your sense gratification, or you want to be one with the Supreme, you are revealed for your motives. You are all envious of that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna, so you deny Him. Actually you are denying yourselves, that is denying yourselves of His personal association.
The Vaisnava only wants the Lord, in the immature stage of liberation one may want the oppulence of the Lord, but as one goes through different stages of spiritual existance, the dormant love for Krsna in Vrndavana becomes prominent in the devotees heart.
As such the pure Vaisnava would never accept such a liberation as to merge as one with the Lord giving up his own individual existance, for the nature of the individual soul is pleasure seeking, and simply wants to serve the Lord in a loving exchange.
These philosophies that avoid surrender to the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is full in all personal attributes and who interacts in loving exchanges with his devotees. Those frustrated hard hearted philosophers are simply lost and out of lack of fulfillment will eventually fall down to base material activities in this material world if they haven’t already.
At the end of this overview of philosophies Madhvacarya smilingly accepted the now humble Trivikrama Pandita.
Trivikrama Pandita begged, “O master, please forgive all of my offenses due to my ignorance. Please give me permanent shelter in the form of service at your lotus like feet, please accept me as your disciple.”
Madhva did just that and Trivikrama Panditacarya was duely initiated by Panca samskaras and imprinted with ‘heat mudras’ of the cakra and conch on various places of the upper body.
Now wearing the distinctive Gopicanda marks of ‘namams’ tilak on the forehead, temples, both arms, chest, and abdomen as well as the neck and back – the symbols of disc, conch, club, lotus and Holy Name became part of the new attire for Trivikrama Pandit.
Madhva now taught him personally from his Brahma Sutra Bhasya to which the greatly learned Trivikrama Pandit wrote a glossary complimentry commentry on Madhva’s Sutra entitled Tattva Pradeepa, after receiving acarya Madhva’s blessings.
TRIVIKRAMA PANDIT GLORIFIES MADHVA’S LITERARY WORKS
Trivikrama Pandit then glorified Madhvacarya and his Brahma Sutra, saying that because his Brahma SUtra is so straight forward and profound it is like an ocean of milk that I relish to churn, for further and further realizations can be had continuously due to it’s truely spiritual nature of not being able to be exhausted.
Trivikrama Pandit then started to glorify each of Madhva’s works starting with the Upanisads, Gita Bhasya and Gita-tatparya. He then glorified Mahabharat-Tatparya which includes the Ramayana. He glorified the Pancaratra Sastra and the Puranas of which Srimad Bhagavatam is the cream. In Madhva’s commentry on the Srimad Bhagavatam he really concentrated his efforts on emphasising the supremacy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the Lord’s relationship with His devotees thus out of the 18,000 verses of the Bhagavatam, Madhva only commented on around 1600 verses and most of those came from the tenth and eleventh Cantos. Again we stress, he had a specific mission with set goals. He could have elaborated on every verse but no, to save time and make his point only the necessary was dealt with and in other places and in other books other points were brought out. This is again further proof of the pure Vaisnava acarya. According to time, place and circumstances he preaches accordingly. Knowing well the mentality of the persons of the age certain subjects or approaches to a subject may be avoided or greatly elaborated on so as not to confuse but to clarify and illuminate the actual path to further enlightenment for those of us who are wandering in the Kali Yuga.
For those persons who only know the Puranas you have compiled Bhagavat-Tatparya-Nirnaya which shines spiritual light on the path of perfection. Oh pujaris, what to speak of Tantrasara dealing in four chapters with rituals, mantra and the methods for worshipping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Visnu, and is compared to a well-wishing desire tree.
In the Kathalaksana you gave given all the doctrines in the form of wrangling discussions giving all of your victorious conclusions. And in Pramanalaksana you first of all render different entities as objects of knowledge and understanding. Then reducing every instance to the most minute aspect of definition to secondly establish congnition of the full perception of everything in question. So pramana or validity of everything in difference is established.
Visnu-Tattva-Nirnaya refutes all foes, by counter-attack as Arjuna used the weapons of Nivata Kavacas and Astras so this book of six hundred slokas smashes all rivals and establishes the Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, Pancaratra, Visnu Purana in fact all Sad-Agama Sastra to be valid scriptures and sacred.
In Tattwodyota which throws questions into differences between the jivas and the Lord, this calls all bluffs for the cheaters who are like dry dead forests waiting for the spark of fire to ignite their dry dead wood which is carried by you, O son of the wind god.
Your Anubhasya gives unlimited subject matter pertaining to Dwaita Vedanta, attacking the misinterpretations of the Advaitists false understanding in the Upanisads, you state that they cannot be taken as authorities on Vedanta. You declare it boldly, to only follow those who have seen AVedanta as it is, who define Brahman as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By chanting the Lord’s Holy Names and meditating on His personal forms in Sri Vrndavana Dhama, and by worshiping that same Lord in the form of the Deity, one can please the Lord. Thus all kinds of karma manifest and unmanifest in the form of seeds, dormant in the heart are nullified by this process. In this way those pious souls even though conditioned can become jivan muktas (liberated souls), so either eternally liberated or eternally bound actually by your process the soul can become liberated by the Lord’s mercy.
You again state that at the time of death one’s body enters into fire and the devotee is then carried by Vayu to the Lord, thus you are giving us this process to come to the Lord.
But unfortunately there are still those who maintain a sinful state of existance and who remain in this world to take their next birth via the smoke.
O how wonderful you are, you have covered us by your Yogamaya as Mother Yasoda was covered by Lord Krsna’s Yogamaya. Upon looking into Krsna’s mouth she clearly saw all the universes so by your books now we are clearly seeing things as they are.
These wonderful pastimes of Lord Sri Krsna are captured by your epitone of Mahabharata, the pastimes of Vrndavana, and the Lord’s pastimes with the Pandavas in Hastinapura in only eighty one verses. Being Bhima you reveal the secrets of the Mahabharat that surprise one and all.
Comprised of forty verses you have compiled the daily duties of a Vaisnava, ritual and sadhana entitled Sadacara-Smriti. In Jayanti-Kalpa (Nirnaya) all the auspicious outlines for observing Lord Krsna’s Janmastami (birthday) are given, it’s importance, and what observances and austerities are to be performed for the Lord’s pleasure.
Fasting all day on that Janmastami day, with a special worship at midnight, the Lord’s appearance time. That celebrated eight day of the dark fortnight in the auspicious month of Sravana (August) when the Rohini nakshata comes just after midnight is the best of days. In the prison of Kamsa in Mathura Mandala the Lord of the three worlds has appeared to perform His pastimes.
You also glorified the Lord in this way whilst you were a small boy by composing the strota Kanduka Stuti.
kaliyanagaksvelanihanta sarasijadala vikasitanayanh
santatamasman patu murarih satatagasamajavakha patinirath
Coming down through the skies the Ganges River comes to touch Your lotus feet. Under those soft feet which as the resort of many wonderful lotus flowers you control the Kaliya serpent. Krsna’s eyes are like a full bloomed lotus. His bodily complexion is like a dark blue monsoon cloud. His presence dissipates all darkness. My dear Lord Murari, please give me Your mercy and make the darkness of ignorance fly away like scared birds in the presence of Garuda.
And now the Kanduka Stuti is sung by all local children as they play their childhood games.
Other works such as Jyotis-Sastra and Tithinirnaya give the astrological means by which one can calculate these great appearance days.
In Yati Pranava Kalpa you explain what is the proper mood for the Vaisnava sannyasi and how to chant pranava japa. The sannyasi taking permission from his spiritual master should wander all over the earth. He should teach the glories of the Lord to the people in general and practice those teachings oneself. He who wanders like this remaining self satified, giving up contact and attachment for the material world, subdueing anger, and eating only light foods. He, with controlled senses should fix his mind on meditation on the Lord. That paramahamsa sannyasi who has control over his mind, body and speech always practices bhakti yoga free from unwanted association.
To display that his mind, actions and words are only used in the Lord’s service he carries a staff representing each of those functions. Thus he is known as a tridandin, he is neither born nor dead from the standpoint of the scriptures after giving up this body for his life is dedicated solely to the Lord having given up even auspicious and inauspicious acts.
Vayu Purana 17.1-7, Vaikhanasa Sutra 8-9
You state, “Never shall I blaspheme Visnu or the Vaisnavas, never shall I deem Visnu to be on par to or identical to the host of demigods, and never shall I associate with those who propound the philosphy of exclusive oneness of the jiva and the Lord.”
Who can count the innumerable jewels in the ocean of Madhvacarya’s sayings, poems, and various forms of praises of the Lord. These storehouses of touchstones, which fulfill all the desires of the devotees, are considered unto places of pilgrimage for those same swam-like devotees. Only miserly persons, who resemble crows take shelter of other literatures and look down on Loka-Guru Madhvacarya’s books.
Trivirama Pandit then asked Madhvacarya if he could summerize everything in all his books. Madhvacarya then composed on the spot his Anu-Vyakhyana, which is much like a critical commentry with his own unique fiery logic and arguments, put over with true eloquence and style. In this book Madhva deals with the monistic views and breaks them down to the most minute degree exposing all shapes of undifferentiated oneness. Even the Ista Siddhi admission of the irrational concept of Mayavada, and Avidya philosophy.
Madhva had four of his best disciples as scribes as he dictated this ANu-Vyakhyana in four powerful chapters of some 1900 stanzas. Everyone was completely amazed, as his Brahma Sutra Bhasya was around 2000 stanzas, how could he re-iterate the same points without saying the same things twice. even the best of pandits were bewildered at Madhva’s simplicity of his arguments and the thoroughness and depth to which each of the points has been excavated.
It is stated in local Madhva tradition that one quite amazing pastimes hardened. Madhva, as he preached to his disciples, would often quite often direct his preaching towards the bullock who pulled the cart on which Madhva’s books were carried. Madhvacarya often stated that this bullock was much more attentive to the discussion on these sacred texts than any of his disciples. Whenever the bullock would get a chance He could be seen within ear shot of Madhva’s discourse either chewing the cud, or just listening.
After much, in the form of Madhva’s remarks glorifying this bullock as opposed to the hearing propensity of his disciples – some of his disciples became a bit envious of the bullock and cursed the bullock to due by being bitten by a poisonous snake. However when Madhva heard about this, he gave a twist to the curse. Lo and behold when the snake came and bit the bullock the snake died, and the bullock instead of dying began to recite Madhva’s strotram.
Trivikrama Panditacarya records an interesting story:
It is mentioned that sometimes when Madhva was worshipping Udupi Krsna he would close the outer doors so as no-one could see in. Occassionly the doors would stay closed for much longer than normal, on one such occassion TRivikrama Pandit out of his inquisitiveness peeped in and to his surprise he saw Mukhyaprana expanded Hanuman worshipping Rama, Bhima worshipping Krsna and Madhva worshipping Veda Vyasa. Inspired by this vision Trivikrama Pandit then composed his Hari Vayu Stuti as when Madhva alone came out from this puja. Madhva wanting only praise for the Lord told Trivikrama to arrange for the Lord’s priases to proceed and follow this work. Trivikrama Pandita then composed his Sri Nrsimha Nakha Stuti, and arranged to put the two verses before and after Hari Vayu Stuti as Madhvacarya had instructed him.
THE PASSING AWAY OF MADHVA’S PARENTS AND MADHVA’S BROTHER JOINING HIM
In the village of Pajaka, Madhyageha Bhatta (Madhva’s father) lived to a ripe old age. Both he and his good wife Vedavati would joyfully remember the wonderful pastimes of their small boy Vasudeva, the austerities they had performed before his advent, and the happiness he had brought to their lives. Just due to the nature of this material world, along with the happiness came times of anxiety. Sometimes fearing Vasudeva lost or attacked by wild animals and snakes, the intensity of their pure love knew no bounds for their wonderful son.
In their marriage they had had other sons but they had all died. This is partially why they underwent their twelve years of austerity to get a good son.
After Madhva had gone off to take sannyasa at the birth of another son, the new son, Madhva’s brother, grew into a fine young boy. The youngest son made great use of his youth. Studying the scriptures he was a simple and austere boy, Madhyageha Bhatta was much reminded of himself when he was a boy. Madhyageha Bhatta helped greatly in the boy’s education, but could not supply wealth or worldly gooods, for he did not have them himself. The boy grew and finally took to householdlife. Still as a faithful and grateful son he stayed at home with his new wife and cared for his old parents into their old age.
But now his father, Madhyageha Bhatta, in his ninties, passed away. Due to his pure devotion to Lord Narayana in the form of ANantasana we need only to conclude that Madhyageha Bhatta achieved the Lord’s abode.
For Madhyageha Bhatta’s chaste and faithful life long companion, the death of her husband was the end of everything. She could only painfully remain in her bodily situation a very short time, and then passing away of bereavement she went to rejoin her husband.
Madhva’s younger brother didn’t bother Madhva with the antyesthi funeral rites etc for Madhva himself was a walking dead man. A sannyasi and even by civil law in India a renounciate is not obliged to be involved in such wordly activities.
Madhvacarya’s brother performed the last rites for the parents and then went to see Madhva in the kingdom of Jayasimha Maharaja. After conveying the news of the departure of their parents, Madhva’s brother asked if Madhva would allow him to stay with him as his disciple and that now he wished to take sannyasa.
Madhva’s brother told Madhva that due to the heavy costs of their loss, all his wealth had been spent in feeding the Somany Brahmins, friends, guests, the brahminical pinda rites, etc. Now he had nothing, so there would be no loss, just to give up his wife and become a formally initiated disciple.
Madhva told his brother however the time was not right, for now the Caturmasya (four months of the rainy season) had begun and was to completely dedicated to sober worship of the Lord. So go back to Pajakaksetra now and I will come to you at Pajaka at the end of Caturmasya.
Madhva did just that, much to the intense disappointment of Jayasimha Maharaja whose province Madhva had been staying in.
Madhva’s brother had stayed at Pajaka in very austere conditions, practically not sleeping or eating and he did not so much as laugh during the whole caturmasya. Madhva Vijay 15.94 desribes him as being like Bharat whilst Rama was in the forest, personally taking to similar austerities that his brother was undergoing. reducing bodily necessities to a bare minimum, no shaving, hardly eating, and total absorbtion in the Lord 22-24 hours per day practically he didn’t even sleep and when he did he dreamed of the Lord.
After arriving at Pajakaksetra Madhva witnessed his brother performing the monthly jiva sraddhas according to samskara dipikas. So when the monthly sraddhasa were concluded at one year, there remained no further impediment for Madhva’s brother to take sannyasa. Madhva knew that his brother was well verses in scripture, detached from family life, pure in heart and mind, words and body. And has no further plan to try to enjoy the objects of the senses in this world.
So choosing the best nakshatra when the swabhava (mode) was steady, Madhva’s brother begging to be delivered from the material ocean by the granting of the order of sannyasa, all the necessary preparations were made.
The pure pplace of Kanva Tirtha (lake) was chosen as the place. madhva arranged tat seven other disciples take sannyasa at this time. Kanva Tirtha is only one mile from Manjesvara (about 11 miles from mangalore to the south).
In the Sampradaya Paddhati it mentions the following verse how the proceedings went.
tesam mantropadesa vrataniyama
yugme yugme prabhinnam kuruta
iti krsikesa tirthadikesu
“The acarya summoned the candidatess, two of them separately at a time, and initiated them into different mantras, rituals and pujas. Hrsikesatirtha and the other new swamis were instructed to work in pairs, each two following the particular traditions that were attached to each pair.”
So grouped in this way the pairs looked like this. Guru parampara sastra records the following prayer in respect:
vande hrisikesamathoo nrsimham
janardanam cintaya dhirupendram
sri vamanam samsmara visnumemi
1. Hrsikesa Tirtha as the founder of Palimar Mutt
2. Narahari Tirtha ” Admar Mutt
3. Janardana Tirtha ” Krishnapur Mutt
4. Upendra Tirtha ” Puttinge Mutt
5. Vamana Tirtha ” Sirur Mutt
6. Visnu Tirtha (Madhva’s brother) ” Sode Mutt
7. Rama Tirtha ” Kaniyur Mutt
8. Adhoksaja Tirtha ” Pejawar Mutt
Seated on a platform around the fig tree the system for the present day management of Sri Krsna Mutt in Udupi was then established. For more than one hundred years the system went on that co-operatively all the swamis would work together to maintain the high standards of worship and management set by Madhva, each taking a two month turn.
(In the 16th century however this was slightly changed by Vadiraja Tirtha the disciple of Vyasatirtha and 49th pontiff at the Vedanta Pitha – to a two year term of office called Paraya. This system is still going starting with Palimar Mutt and ending with Pejawar Mutt. The descendents of these original eight swamis maintain and make offerings of devotional improvements to maintain what Sripada Madhvacarya has so nicely established in Udupi.)
After being given Brahma sannyasa, with the acceptance of sannyasa mantra of kaupin, sannyasa cloth, danda and the new name of Visnu Tirtha – (tirtha identifying him as Brahma sannyasi of the new Vaisnava school.)
Visnu Tirtha then studied the Brahma Sutra Bhasya directly from the mouth of his sannyasa guru and brother Acarya Madhva. He also studied the Upanisads under Madhva’s guidance. The humble Visnu Tirtha soo, not wanting recognition, went on a holy pilgrimage to the north visiting all the holy tirthas. In this way Visnu Tirtha purified even the water of the holy rivers (Madhva Vijay 15.103).
After some time Visnu Tirtha reached the Hariscandra Mountain, staying at that place Visnu Tirtha gave up what little luxuries he had in his austere sannyasa life, to live on that mountain at the dependance of Paramatma. Madhva Vijay 15.119 points out that not only did Visnu Tirtha go to the Hariscandra Mountain, but after some time he moved to the Kumara Mountain, which is very dear to Lord Subrahmaniyam. This mountain is so treacherous and rough that none other than Visnu Tirtha could possible live on it.
He fasted continuously and every fifth day or so some local people or a disciple would bring some pancagavya (cow milk, yogurt, ghee, cow urine and dung) and on this his hunger would be sufficed. At night he stayed in the natural cracks in the rock, by which his body fitted into sideways and was long enough in height for him to stand. In this way he spent many years.
He withdrew his senses from their objects by dint of the determination of his mind. By breath control, recaka – breathing out through the right nostril and puraka – breathing in through the left nostril and by kumbhaka – suspension of those breaths, he then fixed his mind on Lord Narayana’s Lotus feet without deviation or distraction. There is no doubt that Visnu Tirtha’s austerities of such a severe nature cannot be performed by any ordinary man, especially in this Kali Yuga.
Madhva had one of the eight Saligrams given by Srila Vyasadeva sent to Visnu Tirtha who worshipped Him on the Subrahmaniyam Hill.
Whilst Visnu Tirtha was on the mountain he accepted some disciples. One who is known as ANiruddha Tirtha, very learned and who knows past, present and future, requested Visnu Tirtha to give up such austerities and to come again to Udupi. ANother disciple of Visnu Tirtha was the celebrated Badarayana Tirtha.
MADHVA’S DISCIPLES GATHER AROUND HIM
The great pandit that Madhva defeated on the banks of the Godavari arrived. This was Sobhana Bhatta. He was indeed Madhva’s first convert to Dwaita Vedanta. Now, after so many years of being a follower of Madhva, he had come to Udupi to meet again with the lord of his life. Madhva gave him initiation and he became known as Padmanabha Tirtha. Previously he followed the Vaisesika Sastras but now was a lion in his convictions to Dwaita Vedanta. Madhvacarya always held him in high esteem amongst his disciples. Padmanabha Tirtha established the lines which as known as Vyasaraya Mutt, Sumatendra Mutt and Mulabagal Mutt.
Madhva Vijay 15.128-129 glorifies many of Madhva’s closest disciples starting with Hrsikesatirtha who had controlled his senses, Janardana Tirtha who had destroyed and will destroy birth, death, old age and disease and the repetition thereof, Nrsimhatirtha (Narahari Tirtha) who had resorted to the lotus feet of Lord Nrsimhadeva at Simhacalam, Orissa, Upendra Tirtha, who always remembers Lord Visnu, Who, in the form of a dwarf Brahmin boy, was given the name Upendra by His family.
Other disciples who were like an ocean of devotion and compassion were: Vamanatirtha and Ramatirtha, who has taken shelter of Lord Ramacandra. ANother is the mystic Adhoksajatirtha, who knows things not visible to the eye pertaining to past, present and future.
Madhva had thousands of disciples, all devotees of the Lord who dedicated their lives to smashing the wicked philosophies of the impersonalists, voidists and other such offenders.
Being always satisfied in the Vaisnava sastras given by Madhva, and the forms of the Lord whom they were given to worship and render loving service to, truely they are decorated with all good qualities.
Others to be especially mentioned are the two Samkaracamas annd Trivikramacarya. These three pandits were solely devoted to preaching the philosophy of Madhva whilst even in householder life. This Trivikramacarya (Trivikrama Panditacarya) is the father of the author of Madhva Vijay.
LAST TOURS IN LOCAL AREAS OF KARNARAKA AND MIRCALES PERFORMED THERE
In the sixteenth and last canto of Madhva Vijay there are some incidences recorded whilst Madhva toured in the local areas around Mysore, Saridantara, Nerenki, Vydianatha, Ujara, and Kadathala to Kanva, stopping at every holy place.
On the banks of the River Gomati, Madhva had one of his disciples recite from the Vedas. At this time there was a sudra king who ruled this area and he heard the recitation and said (out of his hatred for Vedic literature) to Madhva that, “If your recitation of Veda is so pure then, you see these seeds, make them grow before my eyes.” Madhva replied, “The eligible person is not necessarily seen, even though one’s eyes reputedly can see. Therefore one who thinks himself eligible can never be seen by Him like the horn of an ass.”
Only by humility and submission can one actually see anything, as a king surely you know this, for if anyone wishes to see you they have to go through the channels approved by you. Otherwise one may instead of seeing the presence of you the King one might feel the reaction for for trying to Lord it over you or him. You know these things.
Madhva, just to prove a point to the sudra king, took some green gram, just as he had done in Goa previously some years before. Placing it in his hands he chanted the Rg Veda verse beginning with ya osadhih poorvajata devebhyah (Rg Veda 10.97.1)
As soon as he started to chant the seed started to sway from side to side in his hands, then a tiny white sprout came which grew longer and sprouted leaves, fruits and grains all within minutes, and right before the Sudra King’s eyes. The king was silenced.
On another instance, at night, having put out all the lights, Madhvacarya was preaching to his disciples about the sastras. Then he told them to read. When they said it was too dark, he lifted his foot and by his mercy his big toe nail illuminated the whole room. (Madhva Vijay 16.6)
Once on the bank of the River Tungabhadra in the Mysore district, surrounded by the hills of the western ghatt, is the village of Kalas (Balehonnur Taluk in Cickkamagalur) an amazing feat took place. Madhva came to this place known as AMbu Tirtha on the sacred Tungabhadra, and saw the waters of the Tungabhadra rushing through several deep channels. This area has many large black stones on the banks of the river and in it. At this place Madhva picked up one huge square flat stone and placed it as a bridge across the Tungabhadra River. Seeing this the local peoples were astounded, for previously this very same stone was brought there by one thousand persons and placed on the abnk of the river. Originally the stone was brought there for this same purpose but the task was too difficult for the thousand men to complete.
The locals remarked that, this stone is so big and heavy that probably even Bhima wouldn’t have been ablt to lift it, but Madhva lifted it just as Hanuman lifted Gandhamadan Mountain with a casual ease.
One day on the Amavasya Tithi on which there was a solar eclipse. Madhva and many of his disciples, both sannyasis and householders all went to take a dip in the sea, and there continued their discussions on sastra.
At the same time all the peoples from the village of Ekavata arrived there. Mostly this party was boys and old people, they were already wet due to first taking their dip in a lake nearby which is very dear to Kanva Muni, the foremost of Brahmins.
Many persons in this party who were intelligent and devotional, saw who was in the water and their faces all lit up with affectionate smiles. However others from the village scolded Madhvacarya and his party with words that only the lowest of the low could use.
The sea was very rough and the heavy waves made a roaring sound as though the sea was angry. The tide rushed in violently against those who blasphemed Madhva. Previously it was agitated by joy for having Madhva and his party taking shelter there, and the gentle waves moved to the shore.
Madhva Vijay 16.15 compares the two, Madhva and the sea, Madhva being dignified and the sea being deep. The fine words which are like gems coming out of the mouth of Madhva, in fact, all his qualities and devotion are like various gems that adorn him. the sea also hasvarious gems in it’s water and shores of various colours. But now we find some differences for the sea is rough and salty whereas Madhva is very attractive and sweet.
Madhva sat on the shore and recited the Aitareya Upanisad in a very melodious way for quite some time and as he chanted the roar of the waves diminish.
Whilst he recited that wonderful Aitareya Upanisad which propounds difference and the qualities there. Madhva found himself surrounded by Brahmins, with their hadns joinded together in salutations. with great respect they took the dust from his lotus feet.
When Madhva re-entered the sea he found himself victim of the low caste persons laughter and remarks, as they were tossed around they became almost intoxicated by the bashing of the waves.
Madhva did not care for the remarks of these people. When he once became knocked over by the smallest of waves all the jackals laughed. Where an ordinary dog-like man would become disturbed the lion-like Madhva ignored them.
Because of this his prowess and his displays of tolerance, they hated him. Madhva smiled and gave a sidelong glance to the sea, it immediately became as flat as a mirror lake, thus checking the intoxicated mood of the sudras in the water.
THE CHALLENGE OF THE STRONG MEN
Once two brothers who were reputed to be strong men came to challenge Madhvacarya. One of the borthers of the name Gandavata (Kodipadi) began to boast of his feats.
“Once I carried the stone flag post at the Srikantesvara Temple that couldn’t be lifted by thirty strong men. ANd another time I kicked a coconut tree so hard that all the coconuts fell from the tree and that living coconut tree was knocked right out of the ground.”
Madhva heard his boasting and put forth a challenge. Madhva invited both Gandavata and his borther to come that day and simultaneiously squeeze Madhva’s neck to try to stop him from chanting the Lord’s holy name.
First one brother tried, then the other. Then both. There were so full of pride and so determined but Madhva’s voice could still be heard loud and clear.
Giving them another chance, Madhva pressed the big toe of his left foot to the ground and asked them either individually or together to riaise it from the ground – even one inch.
Sweating hard and feeling great fatigue, over and over again they tried but it was hopeless. The weight of his foot was heavier than that of Mount Meru (which is made of solid gold). Eventually they realized their own foolishness and offered their obeisances and begged forgiveness for their insolence.
Acarya Madhva then went round to the Nrsimha temple by riding on the back of one young brahmacari. Although Madhva’s build made his form appear quite heavy, due to his mystic powers of lagima he made himself lighter than the lightest. The brahmacari carried Madhvacarya Mukhyaprana, the expansion of the wind god Vayu without any effort whatsoever, Madhva being as light as air.
On another occasion Madhva showed more of his mystic potencies when another strong man came of the name Purvavata (Mudampadittaya) who boasted he could lift weights that fifty men could not life. Some of his followers substantiated this with stories of him carrying a huge ladder that fifty able-bodied men of the king could not carry.
So Madhva put the same challenge to Purvavata that previously he had put to Gandavata. “As I recite these sacred suktas just squeeze my neck and try to silence me.”
Hot and sweaty, grunting and groaning, he squeezed and squeezed with no success. The swara suddhi or perfect recitation was continuous, neither did it become choked, hoarse, nor lowering of pitch, nothing, Madhva;s neck could not be put under any kind of pressure by the ‘strong man.’
Madhva put another challenge, and placed his index finger of his left hand on the floor. “Move it!” Purvavata struggled against Madhva’s power of Mahima – being heavier than the heaviest for a long time, and finally he gave up, humbled by the strongest of the strong Madhva.
Many wrestlers also came like Sivagni, (auspicious fire), Ugra (the terrible), Amodha (stinker) and Vasudeva (Krishna), Madhva told them to attack him, and with great ferrocity they did, and within seconds each was a pumbled heap on the floor.
He told persons to come forward and try to pluck a hair from his body, any hari, from any place. But due to control of the airs within his body not even a single hair could be plucked out not even with tweezers or tongs.
Allowing the wrestlers another go, and saying how would no resist, he told them to attack him. As they punched and butted his moon-like face for some time they could neither cut, bruise, or remove the smile from that face. What to speak of break his delicate nose, his nose they could not even twist what to speak of more.
Despite all of these amazing feats of his prowess, Madhvacarya never became proud, but always remained in a humble mood, he was always ready to help those who were devotees and indifferent to those who were absorbed in sensual pursuits, and to those who were poising themselves as his enemies, he crused them. In this way the great Vaisnavacarya acted as if an ordinary human being walking the earth.
At the Paranti temple of Pancalingesvara (Neranki) he found that this ancient temple had closed due to politics between temple managers and pujaris. madhvacarya the upholder of the Pancaratras preached to them at a huge open air meeting attended by thousands of local people, temple managers, pujaris and local people alike.
He told them that the Lord should be satisfied with nice offerings, it is not that you should fight over this and that, you are missing the point. Love for the Lord must be there, one cannot use the Lord as a political lever, love and devotion is all that really matters for if this is lost, then the show of Deity worship will not go on for long.
It is not that the Lord needs the service, for what can insignificant jiva souls offer the owner and controller of everything? It is for our benefit that the Lord has taken this archa vighrah form as the mercy incarnation don’t give it up. Instead work in such a way that the Lord will show himself to you. he stands directly before you yet due to petty politics you ignore him.
According to Pancaratra Sastra there are guidelines to follow, and by following these rules of Vaidhi Bhakti it will bring one to love of godhead. There is no inhibitions put upon one, simply serve. As the Lord has agreed to accept one’s service. By doing this the Lord will reveal himself, by neglecting his instructions and trying to exert one’s own whimsical independence will not give the required result.
Neglectful worship of the Deity means offence, and such offences block one’s path to serve that same Lord. So I beg you, please worship the Lord with the same grandeur to which these five forms of the Lord were installed by Bhima in the Dwaparayuga along with his brothers and their wife Draupadi.
Within a few hours the pujas had again started and the doors were again open to the public with all misunderstanding of the injunctions governing serving the Lord resolved.
In the village of Paranti (Idetude) due to the long hot summer of that year the water tank had dried up and so was without water. In fact the whole country-side was struck by famine due to the drought. Madhva then instantly created clouds, which poured the much wanted sweet rains onto the whole area, filling tanks and fields alike, to again save the day.
Every one was so pleasantly surprised except for the sudra chief of the village who out of envy thinking Madhva some kind of threat to his position as chief, arranged a group of gundas (bandits, roughians) to come and kill Madhva.
Thinking that Madhva, who was now in his seventies too be an easy kill, they came to kill him. But Madhva was always one step ahead and with his party of sannyasis had already left that place. In their hearts the gundas had a strange feeling that they were actually saved from making a great offence against Madhva by his leaving and so they offered their respectful obeisances from a distance to him. Oh how Madhvacarya bestowed his blessings on every one just like those sweet rain clouds without discrimination, surely he is karuna sindhu – an ocean of mercy.
Arriving at Kokkada Madhva went to the temple of Lord Vydianath (Dhanvantari), whom all the physicians of the three worlds hold as their worshipful Lord. it was late in the evening of the dark moon night (amavasya) when they arrived. The local people worshipped Madhvacarya very nicely when he and his party arrived. Then they gave them first class prasadam to eat. the host family however could not partake of the remnants of prasada that night for they were observing a restricted diet on amavasya that they only ate at lunch time. Madhva insisted however that they take prasadam with him, and not to worry about the fast for it was more important to take prasad in the Vaisnavas’ company than to just perform ad-hoc fasting. From that day on, on the amavasya, they then observed a second meal at that time in the evening to commemorate Madhva’s visit there.
It was at this place over the next day or so, until the sacred Ekadasi day. Madhva was so kind upon this family that for the sake of their devotional propensity, for this family who had now become his disciples, Madhva composed his Krsnamrta-Maharnava which tells how one can please the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Hari, by observing the sacred Ekadasi day, by fasting performing extra service, and studying sacred scriptures.
Madhva states that it is imperative that all devotees from eight to eighty years of age must observe fasting on the eleventh day of the bright and dark fortnights. he states one should think of the miseries of hell and try to keep oneself free from sinful activities. Constantly chanting the names of the Lord, one should then perform every breath and activity only for the satisfaction of the Lord free from material result and reward.
From Kokkada Madhva went to Ujerya (Ujare – Ujre) and at that place got into very heavy discussions with the local pandits. These local pandits thought that it may be true that Madhva knows something of the Upanisads, but as for Pancaratra and Tantra, we know everything. What can he know? These pandits who Madhva refers to as frogs in a deep well, tried to ask all kinds of minute technical intracacies on rituals to try to catch Madhvacarya out. They asked Madhva to explain the text “candansam vai sastena anham…” Did they get a surpries when Madhva not only explained this verse, answering their puny questions which they thought so tricky, but he composed his Karma Nirnaya practically on the spot, which gives details in accordance with scriptural duties. Though wherever the different demigods names such as Agni and Indra are refered to Madhva points out that it is not they who are to be worshipped but their Lord. Just as an ambassador may be shown respect as the representative of the king, but the king is another person who authorizes even the ambassador to act on his behalf. So in this way Indra or Agni etc stood for Visnu or Narayana. The local pandits were mostly followers of momamsa which has it’s goals at satisfying many demigods with the aim of enjoying in this material world, in the future. madhva however is not interested in such “post-dated-blank-cheque” philosophies. Madhvacarya’s only purpose in life is to satissfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsna in His multifarious forms such as Visnu, Narayana, Nrsimha, Vamana, etc. Madhva pointed out how rituals are meant to satisfy the Lord and not that the ultimate is to perform the ritual for ritual sake. So in his Karma Nirnaya he outlines what is karma – fruitive activities, akarma – activities free from result, the results being offered to the Lord, and vikarma or ugra karma – sinful activities.
madhva recited so many Vedic mantras including which were used on the sixth day of creation by Prajapati Brahma.
These pandits, who by nature have very disturbed minds, tried very briefly to refute Madhva’s Karma Nirnaya and it’s arguments, but Madhva just brushed away their arguments saying “Your arguments are not correct!”
Challenging, they asked for the correct answers, Madhva did that and the defeated pandits went away.
This Karma Nirnaya has 276 granthas and gives all nice reference to sacrificial hymns, and shed light on the mode of karma kanda also.
Madhva Vijay 16.47 tells of a nice incident where the acarya showed his mercy on some poor devotees. Quite often weel to do persons would invite Madhva to their houses, as is the duty of a grhasta (Householder). But Vrkodarah, Bhima incarnate, would eat enough foodstuffs prepared for thirty or more healthy persons. Yet on this occasion, by his mercy, he increased the amount of prasada that these poor Vaisnava devotees had four-fold, so they were not embarrassed.
At this time on the fifth day in the month of Pingala just three months and six days before Madhva’s disappearance, Madhva’s disciple, Narahari, came back from Orissa, having secured as a gift the Deity of Mula Rama.
In brief, we can recapture the thread of the story some twelve years previously when Madhva converted Sami Sastri to Vaisnavism. This Sami Sastri became Narahari Tirtha. Madhva would not give Narahari sannyasa at this time but instead ordered him to return to his high government position with the King of Kalinga in Orissa. now Madhva knew well that the King had in his possession some ancient Deity of Rama which both Hanuman and Bhima had both worshipped. This Deity was origianlly in the possession of Maharaja Iksvau who gave Him to Maharaja Dasaratha, Lord Rama’s father. Dasaratha worshipped Mula Rama or the original Rama long before Lord Rama made his appearance is Dasaratha’s family. Dasaratha allowed, as previously stated, that the deity be given for some time to one old brahmin, then after his demise, Mula rama was returned to Laxman who personally, on Lord Rama’s request, gave the Deity of Himself to Hanuman.
Hanuman used too hang the Deity around his neck and carry his worshipful Mula Rama everywhere. Hanuman gave Mula Rama to Bhima during the time of Lord Krsna’s pastimes when they met in the forest. Whilst in the forest, Vayu, the wind god, carried a wonderful saugandhika flower and placed it at the feet of Draupadi who fell in love with it. Bhima set out into the north-eastern direction to find more for Draupadi. After much walking Bhima entered that forest known as Kadalivana on Gandha madana hill. It was at this time that he saw Hanuman, whose tail blocked Bhima’s path. Hanumans’ tail raised high in the sky compared to the flagstaff of Indra. Bhima heard the sound of Hanuman’s tail and he challenged Hanuman. Hanuman however came out victorious. Bhima then realized that this great monkey warrior could be none other than the great Hanuman. Who else could defeat him? As a token of their mutual affection, Hanuman gave the ancient Mula Rama deity to Bhima which Bhima treasured. Eventually that best of the Pandavas gave them to the Gajapati kings of Orissa as we have mentioned previously, and the Deity had been patiently waiting in the treasury for His return to Madhva.
Some inscriptions found at Sri Kurma-Ksetra in connection with Narahari Tirtha’s life as a Gajapati king are as follows. (1) Sri Purusottama Yati (Acyutapreksa) appeared as the instructor of many learned men. He was a very favourite devotee of Lord Visnu. (2) His preaching was accepted throughout the world with great respect, and by his power he would liberate many non-devotees with strong reason and logic. (3) He initiated Ananda Tirtha (Madhva), the most worthy and honest Vaisnava, but also converted so many foolish men to accept sannyasa and punished them with his rod. (4) All his (Madhva’s) writings and words are very potent. he gave people devotional service to Lord Visnu, and liberation for elevation to the spiritual world. (5) His (Madhva’s) instructions in devotional service were able to elevate any man to the lotus feet of the Lord. (6) Narahari Tirtha was also initiated by him, and he became the ruler of the Kalinga Province. (7) Narahari Tirtha fought with the Savaras, who were candalas, or hunters and thus saved the temple of Kurma Ksetra. (8) Narahari Tirtha was a very religious and powerful king. (9) He died in the saka era 1203 in the month of Vaisakha in the fortnight of the moon’s waxing period, on the day of ekadasi, after the temple was constructed and dedicated to the Holy Name of Yogananda Nrsimhadeva. The tablet is dated 1281 AD, 29th March, Saturday.
Anyway, Narahari Tirtha was placed as ruler of Kalinga when the King died leaving only an infant son. When that son became about fourteen or sixteen it was deemed that now he could rule the the kingdom. Out of gratitude for his services to the king and kingdom, the boy king asked Narahari if there was anything he wanted. Narahari chose the ancient Deity of Mula Rama that Madhvacarya had expressed he wanted.
Now on this day he had come to fulfill the desire of his guru, Madhvacarya. with tears of ecstacy in his eyes Madhva received the Deity from Narahari.
After a short time Madhva gave the Lord over to Narahari Tirtha who for some time kept Mula Rama in the Admar Mutt.
In discussions with various Madhva Mutts, and by studying the various commentaries on the life of Madhvacarya, something has come to light. In this case, the central feature is Sri Mula Rama, in many commentaries which include the coming of Mula Rama eventually to Acarya Madhva, the commentator either outright says or in some cases infers that there is also a Deity of Sita Devi along with Mula Rama, as does A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada CC Madhya 9.11 purport. According to the authority of Raghavendra Swami Mutt of Mantralayam – Andhra Pradesh, who now have this ancient Deity in their possession, there is no external physical form of Sita Devi, nor was there. But Sita Devi is there is a representative form as the Srivatsa on Lord Rama’s chest. The Lord and His internal potency, it is a fact, cannot be separated even for a moment. The Lord is always present with His various associates and is always engaged in His various sweet pastimes with His Laxmis (in this case Sita), the Swarupa (or form of the devotee’s spiritual master) like Laxman as he is described as the Prati Prasthatri. Then we have the Bhaktavatar, who is the Lord but Who Himself sets the example how to worship – Bharat. Then of course the pure devotee Hanuman.
In the Vedic literatures this is further explained – parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate – the varieties of energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are differntly known.
In the Srimad Bhagavatam 2.7.53 it is also stated:
mayam varnayato ‘musya
srnvatah sraddhaya nityam
mayayatma na muhyati
“The Lord’s activities in association with His different energies should be described, appreciated and heard in accordance with the teachings of the Supreme Lord. If this is done regularly with devotion and respect, one is sure to get out of the illusory energy of the Lord, never to be illusioned again.”
MADHVACARYA’S DISSAPEARANCE PASTIME
Madhvacarya, now satisfied in his mission for which he was sent, was now completely complete. He had smashed Mayavada, sunyavad and all other atheistic philosophies of the time. He changed the mood of the shole planet, he firmly established through his life and teachings, his books and his disciples the timeless truths, the glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Who is known by unlimited names of which Krsna (all attractive) contains all of their individual potencies being all attractive.
In Madhva Vijay’s closing verses it states that these glories of Sripada Madhvacarya Bhagavatapada are continuously sung by the Gandharvas, and are heard by hosts of demigods like Indra, Candra etc who instigated his coming by approaching the Lord.
It states that those devas who have full faith in the Lord and who worship the Lord’s pure devotees stand now in the clouds before Madhva with folded palms, their crows tilted forwards in obeisances.
In a stance of victory they raise their folded palms which are tinged with red-like lotuses, above their heads.
Please picture this. Madhva is now seated in his favorite seat at the Anantasana (Ananta Eswara Swami) Temple in Udupi. Surrounded by hundred of his disciples in a wonderfully festive mood, Madhva’s eyes are bright and wide like lotuses, his charming face smiles pleasingly as he recites his favourite Upanisad, Aitareya Upanisad. His voice is so sweet, powerful and pure.
Suddenly a tumultuous sound is heard in conunction with Madhva’s recital. Chants of, “All glories to you, O Vayu, O lord who enlivens the jivas.”
“All glories to you who is dear to Lord Rama.”
“All glories to you, o most powerful one Bhimasena, salutations to you.”
“O Madhva who has saved us all from the bad Kali Yuga philosophies. All glories all glories to you.”
As kettle drums sounded, all Madhva’s disciples looked to the sky to see showers of flowers coming from the hands of celestial beings. everyone was in a jubilant mood and ecstacy filled the air.
As the rivers of fragrant heavenly flowers covered Madhvacarya’s head so as he could no longer be seen, a couple of intimate disciples came forward to brush away the flowers from Acarya Madhva.
As they brushed away the flowers they found, to their dismay, that madhva had gone. he had wound up his final pastimes in this wrold to again return to be with the Lord of his life, Srila Dwaipayana Vedavyasa in His Uttara Badri asrama foe eternity.
In Mahabharata Tatparya Nirnaya 11.42-43, Madhva pre-empts his own disappearance saying that “the devas customarily do not spend much time on earth after their missions are fulfilled or their celestial nature is revealed.”
This final pastime took place on the morning of the ninth day in the bright fortnight of the month of Magha in the year 1317 AD (Kali Yuga 4418). (Pingala samvatsara magha suddha navami.)
AITAREYA – UPANISAD
om van me manasi pratishthita, mano me vachi pratisthitamaviravirma edhi
vedasya ma anisthah, shrutam me ma prahasih, anenadhitenahoratra nsandadhamritam vadishyami, satyam vadishyami, tanmamatatu
tadvaktaramavatu avatu mamavatu vaktaram-avatu vaktaram, aum shantih shantih shantih
Bho, the Almighty Lord:
My speech is well established in my mind. My mind is well established in my speech.
O Lord, please empower me to grasp and preach the Vedas. May I never forget Your teachings. Only by knowing You are with me am I able to maintain my days and nights.
I shall always only follow You. May You protect me. My dear Lord, please protect me and y preceptor. O my dear Lord, please protect me and my preceptor and all those around me!
Chapter 1, Section 1
atma va idameka evagra asit, nanyat kinchana mishat sa ikshata lokan nu srija iti
Before creation of the universe everything was situated within the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Brahman), everything was contained within Him, nothing was at that time separate. The jivas (individual souls – tatastha sakti) and even the external energy Maya was still within Him. So that Lord then willed to manifest all the worlds through me (mahi dasa aitareya).
sa imamllokan-asrijata, ambho marichirmaramapah, ado-ambhah parena divam dyauh pratistha-anttariksham marichayah, prithivi maro ya adhastatta apah
He created all the wrolds;- Ambahas (Tapah, Janah, Mahah and Svarga lokas – upper planets), Maricayah (the middle planets in the region of the sun, moon, stars which we in the middle earth planet can see. Mara refers to the earth, the planet where short life spans are normal.) and Apah (the seven lower planets – Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Rasatala, Mahatala & Patala).
sa ikshareme uu loka, lokapalan nu arija iti, soadbhya eva purusham samuddhrityamurcchayat
After contemplating the world He had created, He then decided to fill the worlds. From that waters in which He was lying in, He made the Hiranmaya Purusha.
tamabhyatapat, tasyabhitaptasya mukham nirabhidyata yatha-andam mukhaduak, vacho-agnih, nasike nirabhidyetam nasikabhyam pranah pranad-vayug, akshini nirabhidvetam, akshibhyam chakshi shchakshisha adityah, karnau nirabhidyetam, karnabhyam shrotam, shrotrad dishah tvag nirabhidyata tvacho lomanio, lomabhya oshadhivanaspatayah, hridayam, nirabhidyata, hridayanmano manasashchashchachanddramah, nabhirnabhidyata, nabhya apanah, apananmrityah, shishnam nirabhidyata shishnad retah, retasa apah
The Lord deeply thought upon the form of Hiranyagarbha Purusha, as He thought in this way there burst forth from that golden egg a mouth. from that mouth came speech, from speech it’s guardian deity, Agni, came. Then came two nostrils and with them came prana – breath and it’s guardian Vayu.
Two eyes next came with their guardians, the sun. then two ears along with hearing, and it’s subtle guardian of the ether. Next came skin, the hairs of that skin being herbs and trees. B-boom, b-boom came the pounding of the heart, from the heart came the mind, and the mind’s guardian deity, the moon. The navel and the out-going breath next came with it’s guardian deity – death. The generative organ appeared, and from this organ semen came forth along with it’s guardian deity, the water based god, Prajapati.
Chapter 1, Section 2
ta eta devatah srista asmin mahatyarnave prapatamstama-shanaya pipasabhyam anvavarjjat, ta enamabruvannayatanam nah prajanihi, yasmin pratisthita annamadameti
Being created by the Lord, these guardian deities fell head first into the ocean of birth and death full of sufferings. Now the Lord subjected that Hiranyagarbha Purusha to hunger and thirst. The guardian deities then approached the Lord saying, “O creator, please give us an abode where we can reside and eat food.”
tabhyo gamanayat, ta abruvan na vai no-ayam alamiti
tabhyo-ashvamanayat, ta abruvan-na vai no-ayamlamiti
The Lord then brought before the guardian deities a cow. But they said that this was not sufficient for them. So then the Lord brought a horse before them, but again they said it was not sufficient.
tabhyah purushamanayat, ta abravan – ‘sukritam vateti, purusho vava sukrita, to abravit yathayatanam pravishateti
The Lord then led up a human being before them to which they said, “O well done. This form is just right for us to be established.” The Lord then told them to enter into that body and take up their respective places of residence.
agnirvag bhutva mukham pravishat, vayuh prano bhutva nasike pravishat, adityashchakshurbhutva akshini pravishad, dishah shrotram bhutva jarnau pravishan aushadhivanaspatayo-lomani bhutva tvadham pravishanm chandrama mano bhurva hridayam pravishad, mrityarapano bhutva nabhim pravishad, apo reto bhutva shishnam pravishan
The fire-god, Agni, representing speech, then entered the mouth. Vayu, the life giving breath then entered the nostrils. The bright sun god Surya representing sight, entered the eyes. The Dik-devatas, the prajapatis from all directions representing hearing, entered the ears. The deities of herbs and trees as haris entered the skin. The moon-god Candra, lord of the mind, entered the heart. The god of death, Yama, entered into the navel representing out-going breath. Varuna Ojas, the water god representing semen entered the generative organ.
tamashanaya-pipase abrutatmavabhyamabhi-prajanihiti, sa te abravidetassveva vam devatasvabhajamyetasu bhaginyau karomiti, tasmad yasyai kasyai cha devatayai havir-grihyate bhaginyavevesyamashanaya-pipase bhavatah
Now hunger and thirst personified prayed to the Lord, “Where can we reside, please find a place for us.” The Lord then said, “You shall be shared among all of these aforementioned deities, in this way whichever respective deity receives an offering, hunger and thirst can partake of it.
Chapter 1, Section 3
sa ikshateme nu lokashcha lokapalashcha, annamebhyah sriji iti
The Lord, Supreme Creator of all, then though, Now I have createdthe universe and the demigods (guardian deities), let Me now create food for them.
so-apo-abhyatapat tabhyoabhitaptabhyo murtirajayata ya vai sa murtirajayataannam vai tad
Contemplating for some time, looking at the waters, then up from the waters came a form. Indeed, that form that was produced from the waters was to be food.
tadenad sristam parag-tyajighamsat, tadvacha-ajighrikshat tan-nashaknodvacha grihitum sa yad-hainad-vachagrihai-shyad-abhivyahritya haivannamatrapsyat
Having been created, it tried to run away. Speech tried to capture it, but was not able to grasp it. If speech had of grasped it then just by the utterance of food one would be satisfied.
tadprabebajighrikshat, tannashaknot pranena gribitum sa yadhainat pranenagrahaishyadabhipranya haivannam trapsyat
The human form then tried to capture ‘it’s food’ by breath, but he was not able to grasp it by breath, for if he had of grasped it be breath alone, then merely by the scent of food one would be satisfied.
tacchakshusta ajighrikshat, tannashaknocchakshusha grihitum, sa yad hainacchakshisha-agrahaishyad dristva haivannamatra pspat, tad-shortrenagighrikshat, tannashaknoc-chotreba grihitum sa yad- hainah-shrotrenagrahaishyacha-shrutva haivannamatrapsyat
tatvacha-ajighrikshat, tannashaknot tvacha grihitum, sa yad-hainat tvacha grahaishyat spristva haivann-amatrapsyat
tanmnasa-ajighrikshat tannashaknot-manasa grihitum sa yad-hainanmanasaagrahaishyat, tannnashanotshishnena grihitum, sa yad- hainat-shishnenagrahaishyad visrijya haivannamatrapsyat
The being then tried to grasp it with his sight but couldn’t. If he had then just by the sight of food one would have been satisfied.
The being then tried to grasp his food with hearing, but he was not able to do so. If he had then simply by hearing food one would have been satisfied.
The being then tried to grasp the food with it’s skin but could not. If he had then simply by touching food one would be satisfied.
The being then tried to grasp the food with the min but was unable to do so. If he had of then just by thinking of food one would be satisfied.
The being then tried to grasp the food with it’s generative organ, prodding ir, but could not grasp it. If this were possible then just by discharge or emision of food one would have been satified.
tadapanenajighrishat, tadavayat, saisho-annasya graho yadvayuannayurva esha yadvayuth
Then the being sought to grasp the food by the apana – digestive breath. Taking the food through the mouth with the help of the digestive air, and taking the food down to the stomach, the food was consumed. Proving that it is the digestive air (apana) that consumes food; and so the apana is the principle cause in sustaining one’s life by the intake of food.
sa ikshata katham nvidam madrite syadutu; sa ikshata katarena prapadya iti, sa ikshata yadi vachabhivyahritam, yadi pranenabhipranitam, yadi chakshisha dristam yadi shrotrena shrntam, yadi tvacha spristam, yadi manasa dhyatam, yadi-apanenabhyapanitam, yadi shishnena visristamatha ko-ahamiti
The Lord then thought to Himself, “How can this being live without Me?” Again He thought, “Through what shall I enter into this gross body?” Again the Lord thought to Himself, “If speech talk, if nostrils breaths, if the eyes see, if the ears hear, if the skin feels, if the mind thinks, if the apana vayu digests, and if the generative organ emits, then what am I”
sa etameva simanam vidaryaitaya dvara prapadyata saisha vidritirnam dvastadetannandanam tasya traya avasathastrayah svapnah, ayamavasatho-ayamavasatho-ayamavasatha-iti
So then the Lord opened the Brahma Randhra in the skull and entered into that opening. This opening is known as vidriti; the place of bliss or delight (nandana). for the Lord there are three palces which are dwelling places within that of waking, dreaming, and deep sleep, deluded in all those three covered states.
sa jato bhutany abhivyai-kshat kimihanyam vavadishaditi, sa etameva purusham brahma tatamamapasya-didamadarshamiti
Thus having manifest Himself within the body of a being, the Lord then made the jiva soul active and naturally the body and senses became conscious of their respective objects. The tiny jiva soul (individual soul) in bondage being puffed up by false ego acted himself as the Lord of the body, the Lord in the form of Paramatma (supersoul or witness) who is actually Lord of the body, saw the tiny soul bewildered thinking himself as being independent from the Lord.
There are however some aware souls who on realization of the Supersoul exclaim that there is another who is superior, all pervading, Brahman I see him now.
tasmadidandro-nama, idandro ha vai nama, tamidandram santam-indra ityachakshate parokshena, parokshapriyaiva hi devah, parokshapriya iva hi devah
Knowing Him indirectly some call Him Indra (He who is beyond the range of the senses – idam drah). Yes, surely His name is Indra, for those wise devotees cryptically call Him Indra for they are fond of such cryptic puzzles.
Chapter 2, Section 1
purushe ha va ayamadito garbho bhavati, yadetadretah, tadetad sarvebhyo-angebhyastejah sambhutamatmanyevatmanam vibharti, tad yada striyam sinchati-athaitadjanayati, tadasya prathamam janma
In this being, the individual soul (jiva) first enters repeated births in the form of an embryo. The individual soul left his previous situation with desires to fulfill in this world, and now through the semen of the male, is injected into a womb of a woman during her flowering period (ovulation). This is one’s first birth.
tat striya atmabhuyam gacchati, yatha svamangam tatha, tasmadenam na hinasti, sasyaitamatmanamatra gatam bhavayati
The embryo grows in the womb of the woman and she looks after it just as she does one of her very own limbs. She carefully nourishes this embryo that she has received from her husband.
sa bhavayitri bhavayitavya bhavati, tam stri garbham vibharti, so-agra eva kumaram janmano-agre adhibhavayati, sa yat kumaram janmao-agre-adhibhavayaryarmanameva tad bhavayatyesham lokanam santatya, evam santata hime lokastadasya dvitiyam janma
The wife, being the caretaker of her husband’s embryo, is naturally nourished and cared for by the husband. The wife bears the child in her womb and the husband bestows cherishing care on the child in the womb and after birth. While the father nourishes the child from birth onwards, he also looks after his own well-being, for the continuaation of the growing progeny. In this way progeny is continued on the earth. After some time the son gets his sacred thread. This is one’s second birth.
so-asyayamatma punyebhyah karmabhyah pratidhiyate athasyayamitara atma kritakrityah, vayogatah praiti sa itah prayanneva punarjayate, tadasya tritiyam janma
Now the son, whose prototype is the father, is commissioned by the father to perform the samskara ceremonies and spiritual activities in the absence of the father. After this the worthy son (putra) has accomplished his father’s rites, the father having attained old age, the father passes away and is born again. This is one’s third birth.
taduktamrishnina:-garbhe nu sannanvesha mavedamaham devanam janimani vishva, satam ma pura ayasirarakshannadhah shyeno javasa niradiyamiti, garbha eva etat-shayano vamadeva-evamvuvacha
In regard to this, it is stated by a great seer: “While I was confined in my mother’s womb I knew well all the many births I had taken. A hundred iron citadels confined me. But somehow by the causeless mercy of the Supreme Lord, I again came in contact with my spiritual master that I had previously had in another birth. And now with the swiftness of a hawf, I flew forth” – Thus Rsi Vamadeva declared even while lying in the womb of his mother.
sa evam vidvanasmah sharira-bhedadurdhvam utcramya-mushmin svarge loke sarvan kamanaptva-amritahsamabhavat samabhavat
Realizing his predicament Rsi Vamadeva gave up all further materialistic desires, desiring only the lotus feet of the Lord. When finally his present body’s dissolution came, he attained to the Vaikunthas, the abode of transcendental bliss, and resumed his normal eternal constitutional blissful body free from three fold sufferings of this world.
Chapter 3, Section 1
ko ayamatmeti vayamupasmahe? katarah sa atma yena va rupam pashyati, yena ca shabdam shrinoti, yena va gandhanajighrati, yena va vacham vyakaroti, yena va svadu chasvaducha vijanati?
Who is that Lord whom we worship? Out of the two souls residing in the body, who is that witness who is worshipped by us? The tiny jiva soul observes to see if he is the same as that Lord by seeing Whom one sees, by Whom one hears or by Whom one smells or talks about. Or by how one discriminates between the bitter and the sweet. Are we one?
yadetaddhridayam manashchaited, sanjnanamajnanam vijnanam prajnanam medha dristirdhritirmatirmanisha jutih smritih samkalpah craturasuh kamo vasha iti, sarvanyevaitani prajnanasya namadheyani bhavanti
So we see that which is the heart and mind cannot also be the woul, perception, discrimination, intelligence, wisdom, insight, steadfastness, thought, thoughtfulness, impulse, memory, conception, purpose, life, desire, and control – all these are attributes of the entity within the body whose nature iis Brahman, but they are not He, nor He, they.
esha brahmaisha indra, esha prajapatirete sarve deva-imani cha pancha mahabhutani prithivi vayurakasha apo-joytim-shityetanimani cha kshudramishraniva bijani, itaranmi chetarani cha andajani cha jarujani cha svedajanichodbhijjani cha, ashva gavah pususha hastino yadkinchedam prani jangamancha patatricha, yaccha sthavaram, sarvam tat prajnanetram prajnane pratisthitam prajnanetro lokah, prajna pratistha prajnanam brahma
He who is the underlying unseen, the Lord of hosts of demigods and humans alike. Who has put into motion the five great elements, earth, water, fire, air and ether, mixed with the modes of nature, each and every living entity down to the smallest organism, those born form an egg and those born from a womb, those born from sweat and those born of a sprout, of horses, cows, men, elephants, those that walk and those that fly, all moving and non-moving beings. Know that the omniscient Personality of Godhead Who is the source of the impersonal Brahma has manifest all these different animate and inanimate objects through His power of Brahman. For the Lord is the source of the spiritual and material worlds everything eminates from Him, knowing this one can go to Him.
sa etena prajnenatmana asman-lokadutcramya amusmin svarge loke sarvan kamanaptva amritah samabhavat samabhavat aum
Rsi Vamadeva having realized his true nature as a spiritual being, free from the influence of material conditioning and the impositions thereof, attained to the transcendental plane. Now happily he regained his natural constitutional position as an eternal servant of Lord Krishna in Goloka Vrndavana.
Bho, the Almighty Lord, Yes my speech is well established in my mind. My mind is well established in my speech. Kindly show yourself to me. Bestowing Your kindness upon me, enable me to fully understand You, Whose glories are sounded throughout the Vedas. May I never lose sight of the Vedic injunctions. By constantly remembering You I maintain my days and nights. I shall always deem to live by Your path and shall always speak the truth.
THUS END AITAREYA UPANISAD
By following the flow of this Upanisad, it is quite obvious why this was Madhva’s favourite, not only for the melodious swara in which it is chanted, not that everything is centered around the breath of life (the five life airs, prana, apanaya, vyanaya, udanaya & samanaya nourish and sustain the body, just as the Supreme Lord nourishes and maintains His creation through the agency of Mukhyaprana – Vayu), but this whole Upanisad is based on differences, between the Lord and the jivas, the Lord and different kinds of matter. Difference between the jivas and matter, diffferences between different individual souls, ie husband and wife, child etc, different animals, and lastly between different matters, themselves each having it’s own unique and idividual potency. This being the essence of Madhvacarya’s philosophy.
Again, I humbly beg for the mercy of the Lord and His devotees. I pray to the reader to be compassionate for my limitations in trying to present this work. I have no qualifications for making this work a success, simply I have the desire to try to glorify one of the greatest Viasnavacaryas known to the world, and to try to glorify those great Vaisnavas who are associated with him. The time factor is not important to associate with great Vaisnava devotees of the Lord, for their pastimes are continually sung in all the three world, for they are living still in sound.
In Padmanabhacar’s commentary on the life of Madhva, he points out that Madhvacarya must have visited Navadvipa (Nadia) when he visited Bengal, for at this time and for centuries each side of this time Nadia, was the seat of learning for all India. Thousands of students descended upon the scholars of Nava-dvipa to study numerous subjects ranging from grammar, rhetoric, logic, astrology, palmistry, the arts, all the Vedic sciences. We can see by this that this was no ordinary place but an eternal sacred tirtha, place of pilgrimage. Navadvipa is entirely non-different yet geographically different from Sri Vrindavan dham. Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the same Krsna Who, in Bhagavad-gita states, “By all the Vedic literatures I am to be know, indeed I am the Vedas.” It is not hard for the devotee to see that when the Lord appears in His holy dhama His retinue simultaneopusly appears with Him. In this way Navadvipa is all famous, beautiful, opulent, etc, for it is the Lord’s eternal abode.
Andhantamas is where those persons are bombarded by red hot boulders, and are then tortured by having their limbs ignited by the clash of these burning hot rocks. They are also struck by lightning and forced to stand in boiling hot mud. In that muddy well filled with excretement, blood and worms and leeches that are as hard as diamonds and that suck one’s blood, the poor soul is famished by hunger and is also attacked by savage, deformed demons with razor sharp teeth and claws, and birds with sharp beaks slash and peck out one’s eyes.
 dwapariyair janair visnuh, pancartrais ca kevalam, kalau tu nama matrena pujyate bhagavan harih.
This is assuming that the mother is chaste to one husband, and even if not, she may, one would hope, still remember at least that it could have been one of so many men – this one, this one, etc. There is one story of a very proud, but foolish young brahmin who was fond of telling how his father was such a big big, dig gaj pandit, and that his mother was was the ideal mother, chaste, simple, beautiful, pure hearted, and not only thay but she had many mystic powers. She was so amazing, so mystical, that even I was born five years after my father’s death ! Symptoms of the Kali yuga !
Oxford English Dictionary.
This story will be further told twelve years later in Madhva’s life when Narahari returns from Kalinga, later in this book.
It is accepted that the composition of the Dwadasa Stotram by Madhva at this time was as follows: Madhvacarya went to the sea shore of Malpe, reciting the first five chapters of 46 that comprise the Dwadasa Stotram, on the day that he expected the Deity of Lord Krsna to arrive by boat from Dwaraka. Overjoyed upon securing the Deity of Lord Krsna hidden in the Gopichand, Madhva first glorified Lord Krsna and then many other of the Lord’s incarnations as well, in order of their appearance. The rest were composed on Madhva’s way back to Udupi carrying the Lord hidden inside the tilak (Gopichand).
This Dwadasa Stotram is sung in a marching metre, giving the mood of Madhva’s gait as he was going to and from Malpe.
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appeared some 500 years agi in the area known as Bengal, as the founder of his sankirtan movement changed the mantra to read Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare
Previous yugas would reward that whatever ‘animal’, that was offered into the fire again came out from the fire, not only unscathed from such intence heat and flames , but with a new and rejouvenated body, a far cry from what this ritualistic smarta wants to do!
This is also supported in the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.20.9) where Lord Krsna Himself says, “One should execute the prescribed duties of varna and asrama as long as he has not developed spontaneous attachment for hearing about My pastimes and activities.” In other words, the prescribed ceremonies of religion and asrama are ritualistic ceremonies of relgion intended for economic development, sense gratification or salvation. All of these are recommended in the revealed scriptures only to bring one to the point of Krsna consciousness. But one who has already developed spontaneous attachment for Krsna does not require to execute the duties prescribed in the scriptures. (This was taken from the Nectar of Devotion page 112, AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada.)
Tantrics of South India, in particular Kerala are feared throughout India, there are many stories that surround them.
Jayasimha Maharaja was the father of Ravi Varma Kuashekhara 1266-67 a.d. according to ” Life and teachings of Sri Madhvacarya” of Pandit Sri M. Rama Rao (Upanaya Ratnakar, Shastra Visarada) Kumbakonam.
This story goes on further to say that this bullock later took human birth and became known as the great follower of Madhvacarya’s philosophy. This was non other than the greatest exponent of Madhva’s philosophy since Madhva, many even call him the second Madhva. His name is Jayatirtha.
In his works he shed light on even some of the most obscure corners of Madhva’s writings, truely he had incredible insight into Madhva’s mission making twenty two commentries and elucidations on Madhva’s philosophy.
It is stated that there are ten airs within the body five main airs and their five subtle potencies. The body and its movements are actually generated from the heart, then the activities of the body made up of earth, fire, water, air, etc. are executed by the senses. By the desire of the living entity the jiva who wears the subtle body covering of false ego, intelligence and mind, the senses perform their functions, but they are actually powered by the life airs. Within the body, the main air which passes through the nose for breathing is called prana. The air which passes through the rectum as evacuated bodily air is called apana. The air which digests the foodstuffs in the stomach and which is sometimes heard as belching is called amana. That air which passes through the throat, and the stoppage of which is called suffocation is called udana. The total air which balances and circulates throughout the entire body is called vyana. Then even more subtler than these are five more which have other various functions. For example, the air that enables us tp open our eyes, mouth etc is called anga. The air that increases one’s appetite is called krkara. The air whcih enables contraction of the limbs, cheeks, stomach, or in the case here of Madhva restraining the hairs in the follicles of his body, this air is called kurma. There is also the air which helps relaxation by openign the mouth wide by yawning and this is called devadatta. The air used for sustenance taking nourishment into the body is called dhananjaya.
These airs, being generated from the region of the heart, are of the superior energy of the Lord who, accompanied by the tiny jiva soul, resides in that central region, and everything goes on under his guidence and observation.
The principle of Athavada is to be applied to the statement which says everyone from eight to eighty should fast, actually everyone should fast, athavada means to emphasise a point. So from eight to eighty means everyone, not that if one is eighty five years old he is exempt from fasting.
Just as in Visnu Sahasra Nama, Siva is one of these thousand names of Lord Visnu, and this name only refers to Visnu not Sambhu or Sankar the follower of Sankarsana.
In the Srimad Bhagavatam 8.23.16 it further stresses some points that acarya Madhva has made in regard to the yuga dharma, rituals performed to obtain fruitive temporary results and the arrangements one has to make to perform these said rituals – where as one may satisfy the Supreme Personality of Godhead simply by chanting His name without offence. Just as by watering the root of a tree the trunk , branches, leaves, flowers and fruits all automatically become satisfied for that Lord is the root of all that be.
manratas tantratas chidram
desa kalarha vastutah
sarvam karoti nischidram
There may be discrepancies in pronouncing mantras and observing the regulative principles and more over, there may be discrepancies in regard to time, place, person and paraphernalia, but when Your (Lord Krsna’s) Holy Name is chanting, everything becomes faultless. (SB 8.23.16)